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5.5 - Classification

5.5 - Classification

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Published by IB Screwed
Notes on IB Biology topic classification
Notes on IB Biology topic classification

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Published by: IB Screwed on Jul 22, 2011
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05/19/2014

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5.5 - Classification
5.5.1
 
- Outline the binomial system of nomenclature
In this system, each species has two names - a noun and an adjective. The first is the genus, which starts with an upper case letter, followed by the species written in lower case. i.e.
Homo sapiens
 When such names are handwritten, they must be underlined, whilst typed names must be in
italics
. If it is followed by a name in brackets, this is the name of the person who first scientifically identified the species
5.5.2 - List seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa - kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species - using an example from two different kingdoms for each level
 Organisms that share characteristics are placed in similar groups. The groups become closer as the organisms become more similar. Using this system, organisms can be clearly identified without the confusion of local naming. Also, it shows the
evolutionary relationships
between groups. Simply based on the name, we can predict anatomical, physiological and genetic characteristics it may share with other organisms.
 
KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
 
Red Kangaroo Blue Gum Eucalyptus Tree Kingdom
Animalia Plantae
Phylum
Chordata Angiosperms
Class
Mammalia Rosids
Order
Diprotodontia Myrtales
Family
Macropodidae Myrtaceae
Genus
Macropus Eucalyptus
species
rufus globulus
5.5.3 - Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophyta, and angiospermophyta
Any organism belonging to the plant kingdom has the following characteristics:
 
They are photosynthetic
 
Contain chlorophyll
 
Their cells have a cell wall of cellulose
 
They contain permanent vacuoles
 
They store starch
Bryophyta - moss, liverworts and hornworts
These have no true leaves or roots, having only hair-like rhizoids, nor a cuticle. They reproduce through sporangium, which are long stalks with capsules on the end. They inhabit damp environments.
 
Filicinophyta - ferns
These have elaborate leaves and roots that conduct water and nutrients. They have divided leaves with a waxy cuticle and non-woody stems. They reproduce through sporangia, which are found clustered on the under-surface of the leaves and contain the reproductive spores. Ferns favour moist conditions.
Coniferophytes - conifers and pines
These are trees and shrubs that have woody steps due to the presence of lignin. They have waxy, narrow, needle-like leaves and vascular systems. They are typically evergreen plants that are resistant to low temperatures. They reproduce using cones.
 Angiospermophyta - flowering plants and grasses
These have roots, stems and leaves with vascular bundles. The leaves have a waxy cuticle and pores on the surface called
stomata
. They reproduce using flowers, with the ovules in the carpal structure and the polled grains produced in the anthers. This phylum is then split into the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons. Monocots have parallel veins in the leaves and a single embryonic leaf. Dicots, on the other hand, have net-like veins and two embryonic leaves.

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