odulate) is adevicethatmodulatesan analogcarriersignalto encodedigitalinformation, and alsodemodulatessuch a carrier signalto decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmittedeasily and decoded to reproduce the original digitaldata. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals, from drivendiodestoradio. Experiments have even been performedin the use of modems over the medium of two cans connected by a string.The most familiar example of a modem turns the digital '1s and 0s' of a personal computer intosounds that can be transmitted over thetelephone linesof Plain Old Telephone Systems (POTS),and once received on the other side, converts those sounds back into 1s and 0s. Modems aregenerally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time, normally measured inbits per second, or "bps".Far more exotic modems are used by Internet users every day, notablycable modemsandADSLmodems. Intelecommunications, "radio modems" transmitrepeating frames of dataat very highdata rates overmicrowaveradio links. Some microwave modems transmit more than a hundredmillion bits per second.Optical modemstransmit data overoptic fibers. Most intercontinental datalinks now use optic modems transmitting overundersea optical fibers. Optical modems routinelyhave data rates in excess of a billion (1x10
) bits per second.
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Modem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1957 AT&T DataphoneModems in the United States were first introduced as a part of theSAGEair-defense system in the1950s, connecting terminals located at various airbases, radar sites and command-and-controlcenters to the SAGE director centers scattered around the US and Canada. SAGE ran on dedicatedcommunications lines, but the devices at either end were otherwise similar in concept to today'smodems.IBMwas the primary contractor for both the computers and the modems used in theSAGE system.A few years later a chance meeting between the CEO of American Airlinesand a regionalmanager of IBM led to a "mini-SAGE" being developed as an automated airline ticketing system.In this case the terminals were located at ticketing offices, tied to a central computer that managedavailability and scheduling. The system, known as SABRE, is the ancestor of today'sSabresystem.
AT&T monopoly in the United States
For many years,AT&Tmaintained a monopoly in the United States on the use of its phone lines,allowing only AT&T-supplied devices to be attached to their network. For the growing group of
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