A Brief Review of the Statistical Process

Using Descriptive Statistics

Using Comparative Statistics

Using Correlational Statistics

Understanding Hypothesis
Testing,Power,and Sample Size

Understanding the p-Value

Planning a Successful Analysis

Formulate a Testable Research Question (Hypothesis)

Collect Data Appropriate to Testing Your Hypotheses

Properly Interpret and Report Your Results

Guidelines for Creating Data Sets

Preparing Excel Data for Import

Table 1.4 Sample Grouped Data

Guidelines for Reporting Results

Guidelines for Creating and Using Graphs

Downloading Sample SPSS Data Files

Opening Data Files for Examples

Summary

References

Describing and Examining Data

Example Data Files

Describing Quantitative Data

Observe the Distribution of Your Data

Testing for Normality

Tips and Caveats for Quantitative Data

Quantitative Data Description Examples

Table 2.1 Test for Normality on IRA Data

EXAMPLE2.2: Quantitative Data by Groups

Describing Categorical Data

Considerations for Examining Categorical Data

Tips and Caveats

Describing Categorical Data Examples

One-Sample t-Test

Appropriate Applications for a One-Sample t-Test

Design Considerations for a One-Sample t-Test

Hypotheses for a One-Sample t-Test

EXAMPLE 3.1: One-Sample t-Test

Figure 3.2 Boxplot of the Bolt Data

Table 3.2 Explore Output Showing the Confidence Interval for µ

Two-Sample t-Test

Appropriate Applications for a Two-Sample t-Test

Design Considerations for a Two-Sample t-Test

Hypotheses for a Two-Sample t-Test

Tips and Caveats for a Two-Sample t-Test

Two-Sample t-Test Examples

Figure 3.4 Boxplots for the Fertilizer Study

Table 3.4 Two-Sample t-Test Output for Fertilizer Data

Appropriate Applications for a Paired t-Test

Design Considerations for a Paired t-Test

Hypotheses for a Paired t-Test

EXAMPLE 3.4: Paired t-Test

Correlation and Regression

Correlation Analysis

Appropriate Applications for Correlation Analysis

Design Considerations for Correlation Analysis

Hypotheses for Correlation Analysis

Tips and Caveats for Correlation Analysis

EXAMPLE 4.1: Correlation Analysis

Simple Linear Regression

Design Considerations for Simple Linear Regression

Hypotheses for a Simple Linear Regression Analysis

Tips and Caveats for Simple Linear Regression

Interval Estimates

EXAMPLE4.2:Simple Linear Regression

Figure 4.5 Scatterplot for Simple Linear Regression Example

Table 4.2 Results of Simple Linear Regression Analysis

Multiple Linear Regression

Design Considerations for Multiple Linear Regression

Hypotheses for Multiple Linear Regression

R-Square

Tips and Caveats for Multiple Linear Regression

Figure 4.8 Residual Plot for JOBSCORE.SAV Data

Bland-Altman Analysis

Design Considerations for a Bland-Altman Analysis

EXAMPLE4.4: Bland-Altman Analysis

Figure 4.10Bland-Altman Plot

Analysis of Categorical Data

Contingency Table Analysis (r ×× c)

Hypotheses for a Contingency Table Analysis

Contingency Table Examples

EXAMPLE5.1: r ××cContingency Table Analysis

Table 5.1 Pearson’s Crime Analysis Data

Figure 5.1 Bar Chart for Crime Versus Drinking Analysis

Table 5.3 Chi-Square Tests for Crime Data

EXAMPLE5.2: 2 ××2 Contingency Table Analysis

Table 5.5 Output for 2 ×2 Exposure/Reaction Data

Table 5.6 Statistical Output for 2 ×2 Exposure/Reaction Data

Analyzing Risk Ratios in a 2 ××2 Table

Hypotheses for McNemar’s Test

EXAMPLE5.4: McNemar’s Test

Table 5.9 2 ×2 Table for Advertising Effectiveness Data

Mantel-Haenszel Comparison

Hypotheses Tests Used in Mantel-Haenszel Analysis

Design Considerations for a Mantel-Haenszel Test

EXAMPLE5.5: Mantel-Haenszel Analysis

Tips and Caveats for Mantel-Haenszel Analysis

Tests of Interrater Reliability

Appropriate Applications of Interrater Reliability

EXAMPLE 5.6: Interrater Reliability Analysis

Table 5.15Results for Interrater Reliability Analysis

Goodness-of-Fit Test

Appropriate Applications of the Goodness-of-Fit Test

Design Considerations for
a Goodness-of-Fit Test

Hypotheses for a Goodness-of-Fit Test

Tips and Caveats for a Goodness-of-Fit Test

EXAMPLE5.7: Goodness-of-Fit Test

Table 5.16Goodness-of-Fit Analysis for Mendel’s Data

Other Measures of Association for Categorical Data

One-Way ANOVA

Appropriate Applications for a One-Way ANOVA

Design Considerations for a One-Way ANOVA

Hypotheses for a One-Way ANOVA

Tips and Caveats for a One-Way ANOVA

EXAMPLE6.1: One-Way ANOVA

Table 6.1 Descriptive Statistics for a One-Way ANOVA

Table 6.2 ANOVA Table for COURSE.SAV Data

Table 6.7 One-Way ANOVA Data for EXAMPLE6.2

Figure 6.3 Mean Number of Flowers by Supplement Strength

Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Table 6.9 Two-Way ANOVA Data

Appropriate Applications for a Two-Way ANOVA

Design Considerations for a Two-Way ANOVA

Hypotheses for a Two-Way ANOVA

Figure 6.4 Interaction Plots

Tips and Caveats for a Two-Way ANOVA

EXAMPLE 6.3: Two-Way ANOVA

Table 6.10Descriptive Statistics for Two-Way ANOVA

Table 6.11Table for Two-Way ANOVA

Table 6.13Tukey Comparison Results in Graphical Form

Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance

Hypotheses for a Repeated-Measures ANOVA

Tips and Caveats for a Repeated-Measures ANOVA

EXAMPLE 6.4: Repeated-Measures ANOVA

Table 6.15ANOVA Results for Repeated-Measures Analysis

Table 6.17Results of Bonferroni Comparison

Analysis of Covariance

Appropriate Applications for Analysis of Covariance

Design Considerations for an Analysis of Covariance

Hypotheses for an Analysis of Covariance

EXAMPLE6.5: Analysis of Covariance

Table 6.20Analysis of Covariance Pairwise Comparisons

Table 6.21Adjusted Means for Analysis of Covariance

Spearman’s Rho

Appropriate Applications for Spearman’s Rho

Design Considerations for Spearman’s Rho

Hypotheses for Spearman’s Rho

Tips and Caveats for Spearman’s Rho

EXAMPLE 7.1: Spearman’s Rho

Figure 7.1 Scatterplot of Grade Versus Attendance Data

Mann-Whitney (Two Independent Groups Test)

Hypotheses for a Mann-Whitney Test

EXAMPLE 7.2: Mann-Whitney Test

Kruskal-Wallis Test

Hypotheses for a Kruskal-Wallis Test

EXAMPLE 7.3: Kruskal-Wallis Test

Figure 7.2 Data for Kruskal-Wallis Example

Table 7.3 Output for Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test

Friedman’s Test

Hypotheses for Friedman’s Test

EXAMPLE 7.5: Friedman’s Test

Table 7.5 Multiple Comparisons for Friedman’s Test

Logistic Regression

Introduction to Logistic Regression

Appropriate Applications for Logistic Regression

Simple Logistic Regression

Hypotheses for Simple Logistic Regression

Tips and Caveats for Simple Logistic Regression

EXAMPLE8.1:Simple Logistic Regression

Multiple Logistic Regression

Tips and Caveats for Multiple Logistic Regression

EXAMPLE8.2:Multiple Logistic Regression

Working With Data in SPSS

Table A2 Output From Descriptives Procedure

Transforming,Recoding,and Categorizing Your Data

SPSS Step-by-Step.EXAMPLEA8:Transposing Data

How to Use the Tables

Table B1 Descriptive Statistics

Table B2 Comparison Tests

Table B3 Relational Analyses (Correlation and Regression)

Index

About the Authors