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Table Of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION
2. EARLY CONTRIBUTORS
3. THE ROLE OF PHILOSOPHY
4. THE ROLE OF PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY
5. THE ROLE OF AMERICAN STRUCTURALISM
6. THE EMERGENCE OF PHONETICS
EXERCISE
2. PHONEME
3. THE NEED FOR PHONETIC WRITING SYSTEM
4. BROAD AND NARROW TRANSCRIPTION
5. SYLLABLE STRUCTURE
6. RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION
2. SPEECH ARTICULATION
2.1. MANNER OF ARTICULATION
2.1.1. OCCLUSIVE AND PLOSIVE
2.1.2. FRICATIVE
2.1.3. LATERAL
2.1.4. APPROXIMANT
2.1.5. NASAL
2.1.6. AFFRICATE
2.1.7. VOICING (LEVEL OF VIBRATION)
2.2.2. TEETH
2.2.3. ALVEOLAR RIDGE
2.2.4. HARD PALATE
2.2.5. THE SOFT PALATE (VELUM)
2.2.6. GLOTTIS
3. CONSONANTS
4. VOWELS
4.1. THE VOWEL CHART
4.2. TYPOLOGY OF VOWELS
4.3. WEAK FORMS OF VOWELS
5. SEMIVOWELS OR GLIDES
6. LIQUIDS
2. WHAT IS SYSTEMATIC/MODERN PHONETICS
3. AIRSTREAM MECHANISMS
4. PHONETIC FEATURES
4.1. VOCALIC VERSUS CONSONANTAL
4.2. VOICE
4.3. NASAL AND NASALIZATION
4.4. ABRUPT RELEASE
4.5. CONTINUANT
4.6. ASPIRATION
4.7. ANTERIOR
4.8. CORONAL
4.11. SONORANT
4.12. SYLLABIC
2.1.1. THE PLACE OF STRESS
2.1.2. STRESS VERSUS PROMINENCE
2.1.3. THE IMPORTANCE OF STRESS
2.1.3.1. BOUNDARY MARKING
2.1.3.2. ADDITIONAL CONTRASTS
2.1.4. RULES OF STRESS
2.1.4.1. CONTENT AND FUNCTION WORDS
2.1.4.2. WORD STRESS PATTERNS
2.1.4.2.2. BI-SYLLABIC WORDS
2.1.4.2.3. MULTI-SYLLABIC WORDS
2.2.1.2. CONTRAST
2.2.1.3. MEANING
2.2.1.4. PRONUNCIATION
2.2.1.5. MOOD AND PERSONALITY
2.2.2. TYPES OF INTONATION
2.2.2.1. FALLING INTONATION
2.2.2.2. RISING INTONATION
2.2.2.3. RISING-FALLING INTONATION
2.2.2.4. FALLING-RISING INTONATION
2.2.2.5. TAKE-OFF INTONATION
2.2.2.6. LEVEL INTONATION
2.2.3. PHRASING VERSUS INTONATION
2.3. TONE
2.4. LENGTH
2.5. SYLLABLE
2. SEQUENTIAL/PHONOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS
3. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES
3.1. ASSIMILATION
3.2. ELISION
3.3. LIAISONS (JOINING)
3.3.1. CONSONANT-VOWEL SEQUENCES
3.3.2. CONSONANT-CONSONANT SEQUENCES
3.3.3. VOWEL-VOWEL SEQUENCES
3.3.4. /T, D, S, Z/+/Y/ SEQUENCES
3.4. NEUTRALIZATION
3.5. VOICE ONSET TIME (VOT)
3.6. ASPIRATION
3.7. NASALIZATION
3.8. NON-CONTIGUOUS ASSIMILATION
2. WAVE MOTION
3. TYPES OF WAVES
4. TYPES OF WAVE MOTION
5. SOUND
6. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6.1. FREQUENCY
6.2. AMPLITUDE
6.3. INTENSITY
6.4. QUALITY
7. SPEED OF SOUND
8. REFRACTION, REFLECTION, AND INTERFERENCE
9. TYPES OF ORDINARY SOUND
10. SPEECH SIGNAL PROCESSING
2. STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN EAR
2.1. OUTER EAR
2.2. MIDDLE EAR
2.3. INNER EAR
3. HEARING
4. SPEECH PERCEPTION
5. SENSATIONS OF TONE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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An Introduction to Phonetics Birjandi&Salmani-nodoushanl

An Introduction to Phonetics Birjandi&Salmani-nodoushanl

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Published by Mehdi Karami

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Published by: Mehdi Karami on Jul 24, 2011
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11/03/2012

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