Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Management Information Systems

Management Information Systems

Ratings: (0)|Views: 15|Likes:
Published by Usaid Khan

More info:

Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Usaid Khan on Jul 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





‘Lateral relationship’ is based on lateral orhorizontal positions in an organisational structure.In the organisational chart (4.1), this relationshipexists between the Department Managers or thethree supervisors in the Marketing Department. In aschool it exists between Pastoral Heads and Heads of Departments. For example:
MarketingManagerPersonnelManagerChief AccountantSupervisor,ResearchSupervisor,Sales andDistributionSupervisor,Advertisingand Promotions
One of the ways to coordinate the activities of the various Departments in the organisation is tomeet under a superior officer of the organisation. Ina school this will be under the Principal or the Vice-Principal. In the chart above, Department Managerswould meet under the General Manager.
ManagementInformation Systems
Management Information System (M.I.S.) isbasically concerned with processing data into infor-mation. which is then communicated to the variousDepartments in an organization for appropriatedecision-making.
Data collection involves the use of InformationTechnology (IT) comprising: computers and telecom-munications networks (E-Mail, Voice Mail, Internet,telephone, etc.)Computers are important for more quantita-tive, than qualitative, data collection, storage andretrieval; Special features are speed and accuracy,and storage of large amount of data.Telecommunications provide the means for one-way or two-way communication and for the trans-mission of messages. A combination of IT is used:telephone, computer, processor, printer, etc. A lot of time and money are saved and the security of dataand messages is ensured.MIS provides several benefits to the businessorganization: the means of effective and efficientcoordination between Departments; quick andreliable referencing; access to relevant data and doc-uments; use of less labour; improvement in organiza-tional and departmental techniques; management of day-to-day activities (as accounts, stock control, pay-roll, etc.); day-to-day assistance in a Department andcloser contact with the rest of the world.It is important to note that whatever IT isinstalled must be appropriate to the organization,and to each department (Ref. to ‘Functional Areas’).
1. Accessing Information UsingComputer Systems
With the introduction of the Internet and the WorldWide Web, students are able to access informationfaster and more efficiently using modern ComputerSystems. In the past, one had to visit national andschool libraries and spend large amounts of timeaccessing information. Presently any individual canquickly access, save and print information from anylocation. One can access the internet from CyberCafes, schools, mobile phones, at home and even atmodern libraries through internet service providersand telecommunication links. Apart from the internet,information e.g. encyclopedias, tutorials and docu-mentaries can be accessed from Compact Discs whichare read from computer systems.
Components Of A Computer System
Modern computer systems consist of a centralprocessing unit, primary storage, secondary storage,input, output and communication devices.The
central processing unit 
(CPU) manipulatesdata and controls the other parts of the computersystem
Primary storage
(RAM) temporarily stores dataand program instructions during processing.
Secondary storage
(hard disk drives) storesdata and instructions when they are not used inprocessing.
 Input devices
(keyboard, mouse) convert dataand instructions for processing in the computer.
Output devices
(monitor, printer) present data ina form that people can understand, and
Communications devices
(modems) control thepassing of information to and from communica-tions networksComputers are differently classified. We can usesize and processing speed to categorize contemporarycomputers as mainframes, midrange computers, per-sonal computers, workstations, and supercomputers.Accessing information using the Internet or compactdiscs require a minimum of a desktop or laptop per-sonal computer. These systems once equipped witha modem, browser software and CD-ROM are suf-ficient enough for individuals to access and trackinformation.
Desktop Personal Computer Laptop Personal Computer
What is the Internet?
The Internet is a network of networks, linkingcomputers to computers sharing the TCP/IP pro-tocols. Each runs software to provide or “serve”information and/or to access and view informa-tion. The Internet is the transport vehicle for theinformation stored in files or documents on anothercomputer. It can be compared to an internationalcommunications utility servicing computers. TheInternet itself does not contain information. It is aslight misstatement to say a “document was foundon the Internet.” It would be more correct to say itwas found through or using the Internet. What itwas found in (or on) is one of the computers linkedto the Internet.Computers on the Internet may use one or all of the following Internet services:
 Electronic mail (e-mail)
. Permits you to send andreceive mail. Provides access to discussion groupsoften called Listservs® after the software theyoperate under.
Telnet or remote login
. Permits your computerto log onto another computer and use it as if you were there.
 FTP or File Transfer Protocol 
. Allows yourcomputer to rapidly retrieve complex files intactfrom a remote computer and view or save themon your computer.
. An early, text-only method for accessinginternet documents. Gopher has been almostentirely subsumed in the World Wide Web, butyou may still find gopher documents linked to inweb pages.The
World Wide Web (WWW or “the Web”)
.The largest, fastest growing activity on theInternet.
What is the World Wide Web and whatmakes it work?
The WWW incorporates all of the Internet servicesabove and much more. You can retrieve documents,view images, animation, and video, listen to soundfiles, speak and hear voice, and view programs thatrun on practically any software in the world, providingyour computer has the hardware and software to dothese things.When you log onto the Internet using Net-scape or Microsoft’s Internet Explorer or some otherbrowser, you are viewing documents on the WorldWide Web. The current foundation on which theWWW functions is the programming language calledHTML. It is HTML and other programming imbed-ded within HTML that make possible Hypertext.Hypertext is the ability to have web pages containinglinks, which are areas in a page or buttons or graphicson which you can click your mouse button to retrieveanother document into your computer. This “click-ability” using Hypertext links is the feature which isunique and revolutionary about the Web.
What is a Browser? What is Netscape andInternet Explorer?
A browser is a computer program that resides onyour computer enabling you to use the computer to viewWWW documents and access the Internet taking advan-tage of text formatting, hypertext links, images,sounds, motion, and other features. Netscape andInternet Explorer are currently the leading “graphi-cal browsers” in the world (meaning they facilitatethe viewing of graphics such as images and videoand more). There are other browsers (e.g., MozillaFirefox, Opera). Most offer many of the same
features and can be successfully used to retrievedocuments and activate many kinds of programs.Search engines use software programs that usesthe browsers and enable the user to locate specificinformation on the internet. Most operate by searchingfor specific key words among the millions of sites onthe web. Some of the major search websites are Google,Yahoo, and Excite. There are many different searchwebsites, and each is organized according to slightlydifferent principles. The best way to use these websitesis to locate one that works for you and then continueto use it; as you learn more about a specific searchengine your searches will become more efficient andsuccessful.The search engine has a textbox where one cantype in a word or phrase. Pressing enter on the keyboardwill display a list of related topics corresponding to theword or phrase typed. To view the information, onehas to click on a link with the mouse and a new pagewill open with that topic. Each browser has navi-gation buttons for users to go back, forward, stop,refresh or go to the home page.
2. Using the Internet to AccessInformation
Requirements for the Internet
Logging onto the internet and getting infor-mation is a process which is very similar to that of searching a large public library for information. Butthe process is a lot faster using the internet serviceswhich are currently available on computers.In a large library, our first objective is to obtaina catalog number then proceed to the bookshelf, getthe required book [according to the author’s nameor subject title] and search for the relevant chaptersdepending upon the topic.In the case of using the internet, the user musthave access to aPersonal Computer equipped with a modem[modulator/demodulator] – this part is used toconvert digital signals to analog signals and viceversaUsername and Password – obtainable only aftersigning up is completed with the Internet ServiceProvider [example Tstt or Interserv or Carib Link]Telephone line connections which is attacheddirectly to the modem of the computerBrowser software such as
 Netscape Navigator 
 Internet Explorer 
– normally obtained from thesupplier of the software for computers
Connecting to the Internet
After entering the User name and Password, theuser establishes contact with the internet and searchingfor information can now begin by:Selecting a search engine such as
. There are many othersavailable depending upon the nature of thesearchEntering the website using the keyboard, in thebox provided by the search engineThe search is now carried out after pressing the
key or using the mouse and clicking on
to determine the amount of information available.The user is now invited to traverse the subtopics[using the scroll knob] which are presented on thescreen and choose one subtopic using the mouse. Thecontents can be viewed, printed out, or saved on the
 Hard Drive
 Floppy diskette
for later use.
Using the Browser and Search Engine
In the following Example, the
 Internet Explorer 
is chosen as the
 Browser software
isselected as the
search engine
.Suppose we are searching for information on thetopic “SOLE BUSINESS OWNERSHIP”The steps are as follows:[1]Start up the computer and establish connectionwith the internet by entering your username andpassword.[2]Double Click on the
 Internet Explorer 
Iconusing the mouse or Click Once using the mousethen press
on the keyboard[3]Now Type in the name of the topic in the searchbox provided-in this case
Sole Business Owner-ship
then press
or click on
usingthe mouse.The following pages display the results of the search1. SBA - Legal Aspects | Forms of 
 Business Ownership
… a
Proprietorship: Easiest and leastexpensive form of 
to organize …
proprietors receive all income generated by the
to keep …2. Doing
as a
proprietorship is perhaps the most com-mon form of 
business ownership
. … If you arethe
owner, your
will still be a

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->