4. (a) Why clearance is required between Die and Punch. List out factors in\ufb02uencing \u2019clearance\u2019. How the progressive tool is used for making washers ? Explain with a sketch.
(b) Di\ufb00erentiate between Open Frame and Closed Frame presses. Discuss in detail with sketch. What are the advantages and limitations of open frame press over closed frame press.
8. (a) Explain the e\ufb00ect of \u2019Back Tension\u2019 on Rolling process. Discuss its application with the help of \u2019Friction Hill\u2019. How the \u2019forward\u2019 and \u2019backward slips\u2019 will be explained and its role in Rolling?
(b) Calculate rolling load if steel sheet is hot rolled to 30% from thick slab using 800 mm dia roll. Slab is 40 mm wide. Assume coe\ufb03cient of friction is 0.3. Plain strain \ufb02ow stress is 138N/mm2 at entrance and 270N/mm2 at exit. In the above problem, what would be load if the sticking Friction occurs? [8+8]
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