3the two or three remaining species of moas before the coming of the first Europeans. Thus thefamily Dinornithidae became extinct.The largest moas were ostrich-like in appearance, stood about nine feet tall, and weighedapproximately five hindred pounds. There were no native mammals in New Zealand apart frombats. Thus the moas had few or no enemies until man arrived. In these peaceful surroundings themoas became larger and more sluggish – hence more helpless - as time went on. Their relatives,the kiwis, survive in New Zealnad.
2. REDUNDANCY AND REPETITION
Cut out all unnecessary words and phrases. Do not say anything more than once.
1. Remove all the repetition and redundancy from the following:a) Can I borrow ten cents as a loan, please?b) All right, if you’ll repay me again soon. It leaves me with only one dollar, though.c) Thus the bargain was finally completed, and the two twins went off, contented.
3. DIGRESSIONS AND CONTRASTS
Omit all material included for contrast. Leave out all digressions.
4. RECASTING SENTENCES
Wherever possible, simplify sentences, so that phrases do the work of clauses, and single wordsreplace phrases.e.g. Clause: The newspaper which is printed in London, is delivered every day.e.g. Phrase: The newspaper printed in London is delivered every day.e.g. Word: The London newspaper is delivered every day.
5. REMOVING EXAMPLES, ANALOGIES AND ILLUSTRATIONS
If you have given the main point(s) clearly, leave out all examples and illustrations of it. E.g.,Bobbie had another quality which you will hear differently described by different people. Some of them call it interfering in other people’s business - and some call it “helping lame dogs over styles”,and some call it “loving kindness”. It just means trying to help people. (
The Railway Children
byE. Nesbit)This could be shortened by leaving out the examples: Bobbie tried to help people.NOTE: If a large part of the original is an illustration, you will have to include some reference toit.