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Petrochemical, Oil & Gas Dictionary

Petrochemical, Oil & Gas Dictionary

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Published by Erica Lindsey
Petrochemical, Oil & Gas, Dictionary
Petrochemical, Oil & Gas, Dictionary

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Published by: Erica Lindsey on Jul 26, 2011
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07/26/2014

 
PETROCHEMICAL, OIL & GAS DICTIONARY
 
DIFFERENT TERMS & ABBREVIATIONS USED IN OIL & GAS INDUSTRY (REFINERIES) & IN PETROCHEMICALINDUSTRY INCLUDING MOST COMMONLY USED CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TERMS.
 
 A
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE 
Pressure measured with respect to zero pressure, as distinct from pressure measured with respect to somestandard pressure such as atmospheric pressure. Thus, 2 Bar gauge (i.e. atmospheric) is equivalent to 3Bar absolute. (Atmospheric pressure being 1 bar absolute).
ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE 
A temperature at which zero is a condition absolutely free of heat and equivalent to -459oF or –273oC. Toconvert temperature on Fahrenheit or centigrade scales to degrees absolute, add 459 or 273 respectively.
ABSORPTION PROCESS 
A separation process, a weak chemical reaction, by which certain components of a gas are condensed in anabsorption liquid (lean oil) with which the gas is brought into contact. The absorption liquid with the absorbedcomponents is called fat oil. The fat oil leaves the bottom of the absorber and is separated from theabsorbed components in a following fractionator (Regenerator) whence the fresh lean oil is returned to theabsorber. For example, Adip and Sulfinol Processes for H2S + CO2 removal.
ACCELERATOR 
1. A substance that hastens a reaction, usually by acting as a catalyst, as in the vulcanization of rubber.2. Any of several automobile attachments for increasing the speed at will, especially a foot-operated throttle.
ACCUMULATOR 
A vessel for the temporary storage of a gas or liquid; usually used for collecting sufficient material for acontinuous charge to some refining process.
ACETYLENE C2H2 
A highly unsaturated hydrocarbon gas usually made by the action of water on calcium carbide and bypyrolysis of natural gas. It is largely used in industry for cutting and welding metals. Several importantintermediates have been synthesised from acetylene but a cheaper route via ethylene has now beendeveloped for many of them.
ACID 
A member of an important and fundamental category of chemical substances characterised by having anavailable reactive hydrogen and requiring an alkali to neutralise them. Acid solutions usually have a sour,biting and tart taste, like vinegar.
 
ADDITIVE 
A substance added to a product in order to improve its properties.
ADIP 
Shell trade name for aqueous DIPA solution.
ADIP TREATING 
A process for removal of hydrogen sulphide from hydrocarbon gases and LPG by a specific regenerablesolvent.Carbon dioxide and, to a certain extent, carbonyl sulphide can be removed at the same time. The solventemployed is an aqueous DIPA solution.
ADSORPTION PROCESS 
A fractionation process based on the fact that certain highly porous materials preferentially adsorb certaintypes of molecules on their surface, e.g. PSA units.
AEROBIC 
Existing in the presence of oxygen.
AEROMETER 
An instrument for ascertaining the weight or density of air or other gases.
AGGREGATE 
As applied to non-bituminous materials, the inert material, such as sand, gravel, or broken stone, with whichcementing material is mixed to form a mortar or concrete.
AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT 
Asphalt produced by blowing air through residual oils or similar mineral oil products at moderately elevatedtemperatures.
AIR HEAT EXCHANGER 
A heat exchanger in which air is used as the cooling medium.
AIR SWEETENING 
In this process sour gasoline fractions are sweetened by dissolving air in the hydrocarbon phase followed bycontacting with a strong NaOH aqueous solution. The reaction products formed are disulphides whichdissolve in the sweetened gasoline and water remaining in the aqueous phase.
ALCOHOLS 
 
A class of organic compounds containing oxygen (as a hydroxyl), of which ethyl alcohol (the alcohol of potable spirits and wines) is the best known. They can react with acids to form esters. They are largely usedas solvents.
ALGAE 
Plants of the group comprising practically all seaweed’s and allied freshwater or nonaquatic forms, such aspond scum’s, stoneworts, etc.
ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS 
Hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are arranged in open chains, which may be branched. The termincludes paraffins and olefins and provides a distinction from aromatics and naphthenes which have at leastsome of their carbon atoms arranged in closed rings.
ALKALI 
In chemistry, any substance having marked basic properties. In its restricted and common sense, the term isapplied only to hydroxides of ammonium, lithium, potassium, and sodium. They are soluble in water, theyhave the power of neutralising acids and forming salts with them and of turning red litmus blue. In a moregeneral sense, the term is also applied to the hydroxides of the so-called alkaline earth metals - barium,calcium, and strontium.
ALKALI TEST 
A test to determine the presence or absence of free alkali in finished oils after chemical purification.
ALKALINE 
Having the properties of an alkali; opposite to acidic.
ALKALINITY 
The amount of free alkali in any substance.
ALKYLATION 
A reaction in which a straight-chain or branched-chain hydrocarbons group, which is called an alkyl group or radical, is united with either an aromatic molecule or a branched-chain hydrocarbon. Used for detergent or petroleum manufacture. Usually catalysed by Hydrofluoric or Sulphuric acid.
ALLOY 
A substance composed of two or more metals, or of a metal and a nonmetal, intimately united, usually bybeing fused together and dissolved in each other when molten.
AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE 
An association incorporated in the United States, having as its object the study of the arts and sciencesconnected with the petroleum industry in all its branches and the fostering of foreign and domestic trade inAmerican petroleum products.
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS 

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