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Maxwell's Equations, Condensed Notes, Chapter 6, JD Jackson

Maxwell's Equations, Condensed Notes, Chapter 6, JD Jackson

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Maxwell's Equations, Microscopic Electromagnetism, Conservation Laws
Maxwell's Equations, Microscopic Electromagnetism, Conservation Laws

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Published by: Scribd_rkc on Sep 19, 2008
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Electrodynamics- Condensed Notesand Useful Formulas
Raghav Kumar ChhetriDepartment of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillChapel Hill, NC 27516Summer 2008
12345
1
 
6 Maxwell’s Equations, Microscopic Electromag-netism, Conservation Laws
Maxwell’s Equations in Gaussian Units
Source Dependent Equations:
 
·
 D
= 4
πρ
(6.1)
 
 
=4
π c
+1
c∂  D∂t
(6.2)Source Independent Equations:
 
 
=
1
c∂  B∂t
(6.3)
 
·
 B
= 0 (6.4)Electric Displacement
 D
and Magnetic field
 
in Free Space:
 D
=
 
+ 4
π 
(6.5)
 
=
 B
4
π 
(6.6)Electric Displacement
 D
and Magnetic field
 
in Permeable Media:
 D
=
 
+ 4
π 
(6.7)
 
=
 Bµ
4
π 
(6.8)
Maxwell’s Equations in SI Units
Source Dependent Equations:
 
·
 D
= 4
πρ
(6.9)
 
 
=4
π c
+1
c∂  D∂t
(6.10)Source Independent Equations:
 
 
=
1
c∂  B∂t
(6.11)
 
·
 B
= 0 (6.12)Electric Displacement
 D
and Magnetic field
 
in Free Space:
 D
=
0
 
+
 
(6.13)
 
 
=
 Bµ
0
 
(6.14)Electric Displacement
 D
and Magnetic field
 
in Permeable Media:
 D
=
 
+
 
(6.15)
 
=
 Bµ
 
(6.16)
Continuity Equation (same in both units)
·
 
+
∂ρ∂t
= 0 (6.17)
Lorentz Force Law
m∂v∂t
=
q 
+
qcv
 B
(6.18)
 
=
nq 
+
ncv
 B
(6.19)
 
=
ρ 
+1
c 
 B
(6.20)where,
n
is the number of charge carriers per unit volume
 
is the force per unit volume i.e. force density
Potentials,
 A
and
ΦFrom equation (6.4) we can immediately see that
 B
can be written as the Curlof some vector potential (since, we know that the Divergence of a Curl is zero)
 B
=
 A
(6.21)Substitute this equation into the source-independent equation (6.3) to get:
 
+1
c∂  A∂t
= 0 (6.22)We know that the Curl of a Gradient is zero so the square bracketed term canbe written as a gradient of some scalar field i.e.
 
+1
c∂  A∂t
=
−
Φ (6.23)
 
=
−
Φ
1
c∂  A∂t
(6.24)Thus, in equations (6.21) and (6.24), we have written
 B
and
 
in terms of vector potential
 A
and scalar potential Φ.Gauge Transformation:
 A
=
 A
+
 
ψ
(6.25)

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