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Table Of Contents

Executive Summary
Acquisition of knowledge
Cognitive functions
Functionality, neural base of learning
“Hands on” and Holistic –learning by doing
Joy of learning
Opportunity windows for learning
Quality existence and healthy living
Team and social interactions
How the Brain Learns throughout Life
Basic principles of the brain’s architecture
Functional organisation
The structure of the brain
How the brain learns over the lifetime
Plasticity and sensitive periods
Childhood (approximately 3-10 years)
Adolescence (approximately 10-20 years)
Adulthood and the elderly
Learning to delay age-related cognitive decline
Combating declining cognitive function
Combating damaged brain function
Box 2.1.Learning Therapy (Japan)
Box 3.1.Nutrition
Social interactions
The regulation of emotions
Box 3.2.Attention as seen through the neuroscientific lens as an organ system
Box 3.3.Physical exercise
Box 3.4.Music
Box 3.6.Video games
Sleep and learning
Box 3.7.Sound pressure level
Language and developmental sensitivities
Literacy in the brain
Linguistically-mediated literacy development
Developmental dyslexia
Creating numeracy
Babies calculate
Numeracy in the brain
Number and space
The role of instruction
Gender and mathematics
Barriers to learning mathematics
What is a “neuromyth”?
“There are critical periods when certain matters must be taught and learnt”
“But I read somewhere that we only use 10% of our brain anyway”
“I’m a ‘left-brain’, she’s a ‘right-brain’ person”
“Let’s face it– men and boys just have different brains from women and girls”
“A young child’s brain can only manage to learn one language at a time”
“Improve your memory!”
“Learn while you sleep!”
The ethical challenges facing educational neuroscience
For which purposes and for whom?
Ethical issues regarding the use of products affecting the brain
Brain meets machine –the meaning of being human?
The risk of an excessively scientific approach to education?
Creating a new trans-disciplinary approach to understanding learning
Box 7.3.Learning Lab Denmark
Reciprocal inputs from both sides –bi-directional progress
Box 7.4.Harvard Graduate School of Education
Box 7.5.Educators’ views of the role of neuroscience in education
Box 7.6.Technology and a world wide education perspective
Moving beyond national boundaries through international initiatives
Box 7.7.Transfer Centre for Neuroscience and Learning, Ulm, Germany
Box 7.9.Educational Neuroscience Initiatives in the Netherlands
Cautions and limitations
Conclusions and Future Prospects
Key messages and conclusions
Key areas for further educational neuroscientific research
Birth of a learning science
The Brain, Development and Learning in Early Childhood
A.1. Introduction
A.2.1. The onset and process of brain development
Box A.1.Emotions and memory (learning)
A.2.2. The part played by experience
A.2.3. Timing and sequencing –important factors in brain development
A.2.4. Plasticity– a key feature of the infant brain
A.2.5. Critical or sensitive periods in neural development?
A.2.6. Sensitive periods and brain plasticity
Box A.2.Initial language development
A.2.7. Learning in and beyond early childhood
A.3. How important are the early years of development and learning?
A.3.1. The case for early intervention and education programmes
Box A.3.Mirror neurons
A.3.2. Children’s learning dominates early childhood
A.3.3. Negative contexts for learning
A.4.1. The subtleties of play and learning in this period
A.4.3. Learning environments that support language development
A.6. Practitioner’s response
The Brain and Learning in Adolescence
B.1. Introduction
B.2. Understanding brain development– what are we looking at?
B.2.1. Brain development at the microscopic level
B.2.2. Brain development at the macroscopic level
B.2.3. Brain development can be examined at multiple levels
B.2.4. Imaging techniques
Box B.1.The principle behind MRI
Box B.2.The principle behind PET and fMRI
B.3. The brain is a sculpture carved by experience
B.3.1. Brain activity seen over time
B.3.2. Brain structure seen over time
B.3.4. Children and adults do not use the brain in the same way
B.3.5. The adolescent brain and changes in adolescent behaviour
B.3.6. Summary and general implications
B.4. Theories of learning in adolescence and the life course
B.4.1. Implications for teaching and learning in the adolescent years
B.5. Challenges and future directions: towards a new synthesis?
B.6. Practitioner’s response: I have a dream
B.6.1. Re-considering teaching
C.1. Introduction
C.1.1. What is learning?
C.1.2. The human brain in adulthood
C.1.3. Overview of paper
C.2. Adult age-related changes in cognition and learning
C.2.1. Cognitive aging
C.2.2. Lifelong learning: a perspective from adult education
C.3. Aging and brain function: structural neuroimaging
C.4. Aging and brain function: functional neuroimaging
C.5. Individual differences in age-related brain and cognitive changes
C.6. Genetics and individual differences in cognition
C.7. Training and aging
C.7.1. Cognitive training
C.7.2. Training– the developmental perspective
C.8. Creating positive learning environments for adults
C.8.1. Competence-based learning: prepare for solving problems
C.8.2. Constructivist learning: making use of subjective experiences
C.8.3. Situated learning: organising learning environments
C.9. Future agenda
C.10. Practitioner’s response
Box A.What is fMRI?
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57536552 2770 Understanding the Brain the Birth of a New Learning Science v 2 by Organization for Economic Cooperation

57536552 2770 Understanding the Brain the Birth of a New Learning Science v 2 by Organization for Economic Cooperation

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Published by: rafa_w on Jul 27, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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