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cau dieu kien

cau dieu kien

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Published by: hongcamla on Jul 28, 2011
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07/28/2011

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CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN(Conditional Sentence)
 Moät caâu ñieàu kieän coù hai meänh ñeà : meänh ñeà chæ ñieàu kieän(töùc meänh ñeà phuï) coøn ñöôïc goïi laø meänh ñeà coù if (
If-clause
) vaømeänh ñeà chæ keát quaû coøn ñöôïc goïi laø meänh ñeà chính (
mainclause).
-
If he works harder 
,
he will succeed in his examination.
(if-clause) (main clause)Chuùng ta cuõng coù theå ñaët meänh ñeà chính ôû ñaàu caâu :-
He will succeed in his examination if he works harder.
Trong tieáng Anh coù 3 loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän chính : 
* Type I :
 
ÑIEÀU KIEÄN COÙ THEÅ XAÛY RA ÑÖÔÏC
(
probablecondition
) 
1/ YÙ nghóa :
Loaïi ñieàu kieän naøy duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät söï vieäccoù theå xaûy ra hoaëc khoâng theå xaûy ra ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai;nhöng chuùng ta coù nhieàu hy voïng noù xaûy ra. 
2/ Thì cuûa ñoäng töø :
 
If- clause
 
Main clause
 Simple presentSimple future(shall / will + verb) 
- If the rain stops, we shall go for a walk.- He will come if you call him.
* Ngoaøi ra chuùng ta coøn coù theå duøng caùc khieám khuyeát ñoäng töønhö :
CAN,
 
MUST
,
MAY 
… ñeå thay cho shall hoaëc will ôû meänh ñeàchính.
 
 
- If you ask me, I
can
help you.- You
must 
study harder if you want to pass the coming exam.
* Meänh ñeà chính coù theå laø moät meänh leänh hoaëc thænh caàu : 
- Come to me if you need help.- If you have time, perfect your English.
 
* Type II : ÑIEÀU KIEÄN KHOÂNG COÙ THAÄT ÔÛ HIEÄN TAÏI.(Present- unreal Con
) 
1/ YÙ nghóa :
Loaïi ñieàu kieän naøy dieãn taû moät ñieàu kieänkhoù coù theå xaûy ra hay moät söï vieäc khoâng thöïc hieän ñöôïc ôû hieäntaïi hoaëc töông lai. 
2/ Thì cuûa ñoäng töø :
 
If-clause
 
Main clause
Past Subjunctive(Quaù khöù giaû ñònh)Present Conditional( Should / would + verb) 
- If I had a lot of free time, I would go swimming.
(= I haven’t got free time, so I won’t go swimming)
- If Tom were here, he would know the answer.
(= Tom isn’t here, so he doesn’t know the answer.)
- I would call him if I knew his number.
(= I don’t know his number, so I won’t call him)* Quaù khöù giaû ñònh laø hình thöùc quaù khöù ñôn cuûa caùc ñoäng töøngoaïi tröø ñoäng töø “to be” chæ coù moät hình thöùc
WERE
cho taát caûcaùc ngoâi.
 
*
COULD
,
MIGHT
… coù theå ñöôïc duøng ñeå thay theá cho should haywould.
- If John worked hard, he could pass his exam.
 
* Type III
:
ÑIEÀU KIEÄN KHOÂNG COÙ THAÄT ÔÛ QUAÙ KHÖÙ
. (
Past-unreal Condition)
 
1/ YÙ nghóa
: Loaïi ñieàu kieän naøy duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät ñieàukieän hoaøn toaøn khoâng thöïc hieän ñöôïc hoaëc khoâng xaûy ra trongquaù khöù. 
2/ Thì cuûa ñoäng töø :
 
If-clauseMain clause
 Past perfectPerfect Conditional(Should/ would have + past participle) 
- If he had had a lot of money, he would have bought a bigger house.- I would have taken you to the movie if you had come to see me
 
 yesterday.
* “
If 
” coù theå ñöôïc löôïc boû ñi neáu coù söï ñaûo ngöõ (thöôøng ñöôïcduøng trong hình thöùc nhaán maïnh). 
- Were I rich, I would help you.
(= If I were rich, I would help you.)
- Had he known the truth, he would have been very angry.
(= If he had known the truth, he would have been very angry)* Ngoaøi lieân töø “if” ra, caâu ñieàu kieän coøn ñöôïc baét ñaàu baèngcaùc lieân töø khaùc nhö :
suppose
,
supposing that
(giaû söû nhö),
onthe condition that
(vôùi ñieàu kieän laø),
as
 
long as, so long as,provided that
(mieãn laø),
in case
(trong tröôøng hôïp) ,
even
 
if 
( ngaycho laø)...

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