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Non Destructive Testing

Non Destructive Testing

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Published by Debabrata Trivedi
The guidebook of Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of welding ...
The guidebook of Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of welding ...

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Published by: Debabrata Trivedi on Jul 28, 2011
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03/23/2013

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­1­
Non­destructive Testing
 
Table of Contents
 
Chapter No:Name of the Chapter PageNo
 1 Course daily schedule 12 Course Contents 23 Introduction NDT processes & their Uses 3 ­ 114 Identification of weld Discontinuities 12 ­ 205 Penetrant Testing 21­ 306 Magnetic Particle Testing 31 487 Ultrasonic Testing 49 ­608 Radiographic Testing 61 ­ 779 Eddy Current Testing 78 ­ 8010 Comparison and Selection of NDT Methods 81
 
­2­
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Nondestructive Testing
 The field of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is a very broad, that plays a critical role inassuring that structural components and systems perform their function in a reliable andcost effective fashion. NDT technicians and engineers define and implement tests thatlocate and characterize material conditions and flaws that might otherwise causeserious accidents such as, planes to crash, reactors to fail, trains to derail, pipelines toburst, and a variety of troubling events.These tests are performed in a manner that does not affect the future usefulness of theobject or material. In other words, NDT allows parts and materials to be inspected andevaluated without damaging them. Because it allows inspection without interfering witha product's final use, NDT provides an excellent balance between quality control andcost­effectiveness.
 Nondestructive Evaluation
 Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is a term that is often used interchangeably with NDT.However, technically, NDE is used to describe measurements that are more quantitativein nature. For example, a NDE method would not only locate a defect, but it would alsobe used to measure something about that defect such as its size, shape, andorientation. NDE may be used to determine material properties such as fracturetoughness, ductility, conductivity and other physical characteristics.
 Uses of NDE
 
·
Flaw Detection and Evaluation
 
·
Leak Detection, Location Determination
 
·
Dimensional Measurements
 
·
Structure and Microstructure Characterization
 
·
Estimation of Mechanical and Physical Properties
 
·
Stress (Strain) and Dynamic Response Measurements
 
·
Material Sorting and Chemical Composition Determination
 
­3­
Background on Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
 Nondestructive testing has been practiced for many decades. One of the earliestapplications was the detection of surface cracks in railcar wheels and axles. The partswere dipped in oil, then cleaned and dusted with a powder. When a crack was present,the oil would seep from the defect and wet the oil providing visual indication indicatingthat the component was flawed. This eventually led to oils that were specificallyformulated for performing these and other inspections and these inspection techniquesare now called penetrant testing.X­rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845­1923) who was aProfessor at Wuerzburg University in Germany. Soon after his discovery, Roentgenproduced the first industrial radiograph when he imaged a set of weights in a box toshow his colleagues. Other electronic inspection techniques such as ultrasonic andeddy current testing started with the initial rapid developments in instrumentationspurred by technological advances and subsequent defense and space efforts followingWorld War II. In the early days, the primary purpose was the detection of defects.Critical parts were produced with a "safe life" design, and were intended to be defectfree during their useful life. The detection of defects was automatically a cause for removal of the component from service.The continued improvement of inspection technology, in particular the ability to detectsmaller and smaller flaws, led to more and more parts being rejected. At this time thediscipline of fracture mechanics emerged, which enabled one to predict whether a crackof a given size would fail under a particular load if a particular material property or fracture toughness, were known. Other laws were developed to predict the rate of growth of cracks under cyclic loading (fatigue). With the advent of these tools, it becamepossible to accept structures containing defects if the sizes of those defects wereknown. This formed the basis for a new design philosophy called "damage tolerantdesigns." Components having known defects could continue to be used as long as itcould be established that those defects would not grow to a critical size that would resultin catastrophic failure. A new challenge was thus presented to the nondestructivetesting community.Mere detection of flaws was not enough. One needed to also obtain quantitativeinformation about flaw size to serve as an input to fracture mechanics calculations topredict the remaining life of a component. These needs, led to the creation of a number of research programs around the world and the emergence of nondestructive evaluation(NDE) as a new discipline.

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