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Exp 3

Exp 3

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Published by Chan Wei Quan

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Published by: Chan Wei Quan on Jul 28, 2011
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07/03/2014

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1
Experiment 3: Kidney function: Urine TestsObjective:
To determine the composition of urine in a normal person and in a patient through several tests.
Ma
teri
al
s
a
nd
M
ethods
:Refer to Lab Manual
Resu
l
ts:
1.
 
A
mmonium
 
Tests ResultsPositive control Presence of ammonia smell2.
 
Creatinine (Weyl Test)Creatinine (Weyl Test)
A
fter NaOH
A
fter Glacial acetic acidPositive control Dark red solution formed Darker yellowish brown solution Negative control Orange solution formed Lighter yellowish brown solutionSample Orange solution formed Lighter yellowish brown solution3.
 
Uric
A
cidTest ResultPositive control Dark blue Negative control Light green solutionSample Dark Blue4.
 
Glucose (Benedict¶s solution)Test ResultPositive control Orange solution with precipitate formed Negative control Blue solution
 
2
 
Sample Blue solution5.
 
MULTISTIXTest Sample Patient¶s urineGlucose - +250mg/dL or 14mmol/LBilirubin - -Ketone - -Specific Gravity 1.010 1.005Blood - - pH 7.0 6.0Protein - >/ 2000 mg/dL or >/20g/LUrobilinogen Normal Normal Nitrite - -Leucocytes - -Indications:-: negative; +: positive
D
iscussion:
A
urine test can help us to check different components that present in our urine. The testcan give information about our health and problems we may have. The kidneys filter the bloodand the waste products are passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes andwe can perform different tests to determine whether the patient is normal.
A
mmonia is generated during the deamination of amino acids in the liver. The normal physiological concentration in blood is less than 35 µmol/l. When we were testing theammonium, the urine does not smell very strong, but has a slightly "nutty" odor. Urine is high innitrates (compounds high in nitrogen and oxygen).
A
mmonia is made up of nitrogen and
 
3
 
hydrogen, NH
3
. Normally, diluted urine doesn't have much odor. In our urine, ammonia acts asan absorber and leads to water absorption.Creatinine test measures blood levels of creatinine, a by-product of muscle energymetabolism that filtered from the blood by the kidneys and excreted into the urine. Production of creatinine depends on an individual's muscle mass, which usually fluctuates very little. Withnormal kidney function, then, the amount of creatinine in the blood remains relatively constantand normal. In this experiment, the positive control¶s urine was added with a little of a dilutesolution of sodium nitroprusside, and then carefully put in a few drops of a weak solution of sodium hydroxide; a dark red color results, changing to darker yellowish brown solution onwarming with acetic acid. This may indicate the renal dysfunction. The creatinine clearance ratemay be "overestimated" because the active secretion of creatinine will account for a larger fraction of the total creatinine cleared. (Wely, 1851-1913.)The uric acid urine test measures the amount of uric acid in a sample of urine. Uric acidis produced from the natural breakdown of our body's cells and from the foods we eat. Most of the uric acid is removed from the body in urine while a small portion will be discharged out of the body in form of stool. But if too much uric acid is being produced, the level in the urine willincrease. High blood levels of uric acid in the body can cause solid crystals to form within joints.This causes a painful condition called gout. High levels of uric acid in the urine can cause kidneystones. The both results that we had obtained which is sample urine and positive control turn thesolution becomes dark blue after the addition of Folin Reagent-Phosphotungstic acid, it is normalsince the majority of the uric acid is removed from the body in urine.(Uric
A
cid in Urine, 2005-2011) 

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