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Published by: lahloon on Jul 28, 2011
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Title
Macromolecules&Food and Diet Analysis
Objective
1.
 
T
o define monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide and give examples of each.
 
2
.
 
T
o name the monosaccharide components of sucrose and starch.
 
3
.
 
T
o describe the test that indicates the presence of most small sugars.
 
4
.
 
T
o describe the test that indicated the presence of starch.
 
5
.
 
T
o define hydrolysis and give an example of the hydrolysis of carbohydrate.
 
6
.
 
T
o define the protein and lipid and give examples of each.
7
.
 
T
o describe the test that indicates the presence of protein and lipids.
 Introduction
L
iving organisms have the potential to carry out the life processes of nutrition,movement, growth, reproduction, respiration, sensitivity and excretion. Biochemistry isthe study of chemical elements found in living systems, and how these elements combineto form molecules and collections of molecules which carry out the biological functionsand behaviors that we associate with life.Many molecules present in biological cells are very large by the standard of inorganic and organic chemistry.
T
hree major classes of natural polymericmacromolecules are found in biological cells: the nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides.
L
ipids are also considered a major class of biomolecules, but becausethey are not polymeric macromolecules.
T
he major classes of macromolecules participatein a complex array of biological processes, such as storing of genetic information(nucleicacid), catalyzing biochemical reactions(enzymes) and holding cells and organismtogether (structural of protein and carbohydrate).
T
hey perform all the functions of life.Part 1: CarbohydratesCarbohydrates include both sugars and the polymers of sugars and it contain onlycarbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Carbohydrates are the most abundant members of the
 
large and important class of biomolecules.
T
he carbohydrates are probably best knownfor their roles in energy metabolism.
T
he simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharidesor single sugars, also known as simple sugars. Disaccharides are double sugars,consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a condensation reaction.
T
he carbohydratesthat are macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks.Investigation 1: Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
T
he monosaccharides
 
are white, crystalline solids that contain a single aldehydeor ketone functional group.
T
hey are subdivided into two classes: aldoses and
 
ketoses- onthe basis of whether they are aldehydes or ketones.
T
hey are also classified as a triose,tetrose, pentose, hexose, or heptose on the basis of whether they contain three, four, five,six, or seven carbon atoms. Monosaccharides generally have molecular formulas that aresome multiple of the unit CH
2
O
. Glucose, the most common monosaccharide, is of thecentral importance in the chemistry life. Glucose and fructose have the same formula:C
6
H
1
2
O
6
. Glucose is the sugar with the highest concentration in the bloodstream; fructoseis found in fruit and honey. Monosaccharides serve as fuel molecules for immediate use by organisms.A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage, acovalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by dehydration (condensation) process. For example, maltose is a disaccharide formed by the linking of two moleculesof glucose. Also known as malt sugar, maltose is an ingredient used in brewing beer.Sucrose also is a type of disaccharide sugar, which is table sugar. Its two monomers areglucose and fructose.
L
actose, the sugars present in the products of milk, in this case, aglucose molecule joined to a galactose molecule.Benedict¶s reagent is generally used to test for the presence of reducing sugars.
T
his includes all the monosaccharides and disaccharides except sucrose. Sucrose do notreact with the Benedict¶s reagent due to it prevent the glucose isomerizing to aldehyde, soit is a non-reducing sugar. If the result obtained is red precipitate, or green precipitate, or yellow precipitate, it is positive result. While the solution remains clear, this show thenegative result.
 
Investigation
2
: StarchCarbohydrate are found in the form of polysaccharides, which is a long chain that joined by the glycosidic bond. Starch, is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds.Plants store glucose as the polysaccharide starch.
T
he cereal grains (wheat, rice,corn, oats, and barley) as well as tubers such as potatoes are rich in starch. During photosynthesis, plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide.
T
heglucose is stored mainly in the form of starch granules, in plastids such as chloroplastsand especially amyloplasts.Animal consume starch to provide energy for the body.
T
hey were store glucosein the form of glycogen, which is another type of polysaccharides. Glycogen is thestorage form of glucose in animals and humans which is analogous to the starch in plants.Glycogen is synthesized and stored mainly in the liver and the muscles.Investigation
3
: Hydrolysis of CarbohydratesHydrolysis is a chemical reaction during which molecules of water are split intohydrogen cations and hydroxide anions in the process of a chemical mechanism. In the process of hydrolysis carbohydrates just can involve disaccharides and polysaccharides.Hydrolysis of sucrose will produce out glucose and fructose. For starch, the product will be glucose. HCl was used in the process of hydrolysis of sucrose, this is dueto sucrose is non-reducing sugar, so HCl is used to break the glycosidic linkage betweenfructose and glucose. Hydrolysis of starch just added in water the glucose component will produced out.Part
2
: ProteinsProtein consists of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specificconformations. Polypeptides are the polymers of amino acids. When two amino acids are positioned that carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other, anenzyme can cause them to join by catalyzing s dehydration reaction, with the removal of one water molecule, the resulting bond is peptide bond.

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