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CPF

CPF

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European Journal of Scientific ResearchISSN 1450-216X Vol.22 No.1 (2008), pp.98-105© EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2008http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm
State of the Art for Voltage Collapse Point Approximation UsingContinuation Power Flow
J. Jasni
 Department of Electrical and Electronics, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia
E-mail: jas@eng.upm.edu.myTel: +60389466319; Fax: +60389466327
S. Bahari
 Department of Electrical and Electronics, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia
N. Mariun
 Department of Electrical and Electronics, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia
M.Z.A Kadir
 Department of Electrical and Electronics, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia
H.Hizam
 Department of Electrical and Electronics, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract
In this study we investigate the relative ability of comprehensive income and netincome to summarize firm performance as reflected in stock returns. We also examinewhich comprehensive income adjustments improve the ability of income to summarize firmperformance. We also investigate this claim that income measured on a comprehensivebasis is a better measure of firm performance than other summary income measures. Theresults do not show that comprehensive income is superior to net income for evaluatingfirm performance on the basis of stock return and price. Except for investment industrialgroup, In Tehran Stock Exchange, we found no evidence that comprehensive income forfirm performance evaluation on the basis of cash flows prediction is superior to net income.While, we found the better results for the state companies (only in other companies group),i.e., firm performance evaluation on the basis of cash flows prediction using comprehensiveincome is superior to net income. Collectively, our results provide some weak evidence thatshow comprehensive income adjustments improve ability of income for reflecting firmperformance. Continuation power flow is one method to determine the proximity to voltagecollapse point and can be described as a power flow solution, which is used to analyze thestability of power system under normal and disturbance conditions. The main purpose of Continuation Power Flow is to find a continuity of power flow solution for a given loadchange. Conventional power flow algorithms are subjected to the convergence problems at
 
State of the Art for Voltage Collapse Point Approximation Using Continuation Power Flow 99operating condition near the stability limit. Therefore researchers proposed to use theContinuation Power Flow to solve this problem by reformulating the power flow equationsand ensuring the system remains in well-conditioned at all possible loading condition. ThisContinuation Power Flow uses an iterative process involving predictor and corrector step.However the continuation step, parameter variation and the reliability of the system are stillin question. This paper discusses several issues including the needs, demands andexpectations of continuation power flow. Several solutions have been proposed by theprevious researchers is been discussed.
Keywords:
Bifurcation, contingency, continuation power flow, parameter variation,voltage stability
1. Introduction
Power system involves generation, transmission and distribution. The major concern of the powerutilities is to maintain the supply to customers without any failure. The power flow solution, which isclosely related to voltage stability, is an important tool, which is needed to calculate the total powerthat needs to be transferred to customers. Since voltage stability determined the quality and availabilityof power, it has been recognized as the main issue for power system utilities.Voltage stability can be described as the capability of the system to maintain the adequatevoltage under normal operating conditions and after the disturbances arise. Massive systeminterconnections, demands increase, insufficient generation and transmission expansion, economicaland environmental factors have led power system to operate with its equipment very close to theirlimits. Voltage instability and voltage collapse situation become very likely to occur, imposingimportant limitations on power system operation. According to C.W. Taylor (1994), voltage instabilityor collapse is a dynamic process. He also mentioned that voltage instability is the absence of voltagestability and results in progressive voltage decrease or increase.The conventional power flow computation began with Gauss-Seidal method. Then thealternative Newton-Raphson iterative method was used which is reliable, computationally faster andmore economical in storage requirement (Stevenson, 1982). Most researchers found that the Jacobianof the Newton-Raphson power flow calculation became singular at the steady state voltage stabilitylimit (Ajjarapu and Christy, 1992). The stability limit or critical point is defined as the point where thepower flow Jacobian is a singular. Therefore when the power flow approaches the critical point, it willdiverge and give a large error.The saddle node bifurcation (SNB) is one of the approach that can be used to solve thissingularity problem. The Jacobian can reach the SNB in many ways, such as increase the impedance ina key tie line, increase the generation level at a generator with weak transmission while decreasinggeneration at all other generators, increase the load at a single bus or increase the load at all buses. Butthis method requires modification for solving singularity problem. For example when the critical pointdiffers from the SNB point, the critical point may not provide a security measure and the curve may notprovide a forecast of the system trajectory.Continuation power flow was introduced to solve this singularity problem. The continuationpower flow can be described as a power flow solution that can maintain the stability of the powersystem under normal and disturbances conditions. Therefore the main purpose of Continuation PowerFlow is to find the continuity of power flow solution for a given load change.Financial statements are the final product of accounting process. Income statement providesdata for investment and other decisions. Income measurement and financial position of an economicentity has always been a challenge for accounting standard setting bodies. The main purpose of financial reporting is to provide information for user groups, especially stockholders and creditors toassist them in making decisions. Financial statements (including notes) are the main instruments inconveying the information to the users of financial information.
 
100 J. Jasni, S. Bahari, N. Mariun, M.Z.A Kadir and H.Hizam
2. Background Needs, Demands and Expectations of Cpf 
Modern living condition and the power demand from industry contribute to the increase of theelectricity usage. Because of that unpredicted bad situation may occur in future. Power flow is the keytool in power system planning and operation. Previously the Newton-Raphson method was used forpower flow calculation. Research has proven the Jacobian matrix of the power flow analysis isbecomes singular at the voltage stability limit. Consequently, conventional power flow algorithms areprone to convergence problems at operating condition near the stability limit.The use of continuation power flow analysis can solve this problem by reformulating the powerflow equations so that they remain well-conditioned at all possible loading conditions (Ajjarapu and Iba1991/1992)). This solution allows the system to be stable at stable and unstable equilibrium points.Researchers have proved that this continuation method can solve the singularity problem faced byNewton-Raphson method. However after some modifications, the effectiveness and efficiency of thesemethods are doubtful. When the continuation step large the computational effort becomes heavier(Canizares, 1996). This situation can delay the process in the system. Voltage collapse can occur due tothe computational delay. From the conventional continuation method the curve that is generated doesnot proven remain close to the actual solution curve. If the solution curve do not proven to be close tothe solution curve the solution can be questionable. Therefore the reliability of the system is still inquestion. Another aspect that needs to be considered is the parameter (load or voltage) variation.Before this in the previous research the determination of the parameter variation is being done by theoperator. This situation might be not possible if the parameter that varies is not the one that beingdetermine by the operator. Many researchers are concentrate in doing this for static analysis. In real lifethe dynamic analysis is more concerned. No research is done on the robustness of the continuationsystem. The robustness of the system is important to ensure that the system works properly. Withoutproving the robustness of the system people can argue whether the system is reliable or not. Theapproach should cater all the contingencies that might occur and not concentrate only on what hadhappened before.The power providers and researchers need to find the best way to tackle the contingencies,which are unpredictable. The robust method is needed to ensure the continuity of power flow. Thecontingencies of the system should be determined and fixed as fast as possible. The main problem to bediscussed here is how to prepare a method that can cater all contingencies whilst reduce computationaleffort, robust system, more reliable, ensure the curve is near to solution curve and finally ensure thecontinuity of the power flow.
3. Review of Continuation Power Flow
In early 1990’s researchers proposed a new method to replace conventional Newton-Raphson forcalculation of the power flow. They believed that the conventional method has a convergence problemwhen it reaches the critical loading point. This is due to singularity problem in the Newton-Raphsonmethod when it reaches ill conditioned point (Ajjarapu, 1992). From Newton-Raphson, the curve so-called nose curve for stability being drawn using saddle-nose bifurcation step.
i) Homotopy Continuation Method
Kenji Iba et al (Iba, 1991) proposed a homotopy continuation method to calculate the critical loadingcontinuation with nose curve. They showed that the nose curve, which denoted the relationshipbetween total load and system voltage was calculated by a new approach based on the Homotopycontinuation method. This method is based on the conventional Newton-Raphson load flow calculation.Although the author claimed that it can overcome the numerical difficulties related with the singularityof the Jacobian matrix, the problem is not fully solved and the system is still facing the singularityproblem. For the convergence to critical condition, 20 to 30 steps are needed by the system, providedthat the step size is appropriately selected. The parameter that varies is then being fixed to the loaddemand.

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