a special type of yeast is added. The yeast ferments
and turns the natural sugar of the grape juice into
alcohol. Winemakers, called vintners, control the
alcohol content of the finished product by adding or
removing sugar. The color of wine is not due to the
color of the grape used, but rather to the length of
time that the grape skins remain in the juice. To make
white wine, the vintner removes the skins as soon as
possible. When ros\u00e9 wine is made, the skins are
allowed to remain in the juice for one to three days
after the grapes are crushed. To produce red wine, the
skins are left for an extended period.
wines, or "blush" wines are white wines to which a
small amount of grape juice has been added for
coloring. Some high-priced blush wines are red wines
from which most of the color has been removed.
that is served with meals. Cooking wine is any wine
used in food preparation, but most wines sold as
cooking wines are unsuitable for use as table wines.
Dessert wines are sweet wines that are served with
winemaking. Some types of wines improve with age,
but others must be served as soon as possible after
they are bottled. Most table wines improve in the
bottle for about six to eight months. Some properly
stored red wines can continue to increase in quality for
many years. However, most table wines served in
restaurants are at their peak from one to three years
after they are bottled.
distinct sugary taste. Full-bodied wines create the
impression that they are heavier and more dense than
light wines, which seem more delicate.
such as Burgundy, Bordeaux, and Champagne, are
used as broad classifications for various wine types.
Eighty-five percent of the wines served in North
America are produced in California. An appellation is
an indication of the region where the grapes were
grown. The use of appellations is controlled by laws
and regulations. For example, in France, only a wine
made from grapes grown in the province of Burgundy
can be labaled as a Burgundy. In California, controlled
appellations include Sonoma, Napa, and Alexander
particular wine is called the varietal. Zinfandel and
Chablis are examples of varietals. As another example,
Bordeaux is the major wine-producing region of
France, and the most common varietel of both
American and French Bordeaux wines is cabernet
Most people use the termchamp ag ne to refer to
any sparkling wine, but, originally, this word referred
only to sparkling wines produced in the Champagne
province of France. Real champagne is fermented in
the bottle under carefully controlled conditions, a
process known as the methode champenoise. Most
American champagne is made by adding carbonated
water and sugar to already produced red and white
wine. Very few producers in the U.S. use the costly
methode champenoise to produce authentic sparkling
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