file to the screen, allowing you to view your letter. Itshould match exactly what you typed in.
1.1 File systems
Disk drives are usually read in blocks of 1024 bytes(two sectors). From the point of view of anyoneaccessing the device, blocks are storedconsecutively--there is no need to think aboutcylinders or heads--so that any program can read thedisk as though it were a linear tape.
Now a complex directory structure with many files ofarbitrary size needs to be stored in this contiguouspartition. This poses the problem of what to do with afile that gets deleted and leaves a data ``hole'' inthe partition, or a file that has to be split intoparts because there is no single contiguous space bigenough to hold it. Files also have to be indexed insuch a way that they can be found quickly (considerthat there can easily be 10,000 files on a system).UNIX's symbolic/hard links and devices files also haveto be stored.
To cope with this complexity, operating systems have aformat for storing files called the file system ( fs).Like MS-DOS with its FAT file system or Windows withits FAT32 file system, LINUX has a file system calledthe 2nd extended file system, or ext2.
1.2 creating a file system 1.2.1/etc/mkfs /dev/
fd0h1440 2400:6002400 stands for the numbers of 512KB blocks that may bepresent on the disk. For a 1.44 MB disk the number ofblocks can be calculated as,