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Bio Terrorism and Biocrimes

Bio Terrorism and Biocrimes

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Scientific Report
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Published by: azymapasha on Jul 31, 2011
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WORKING PAPER 
Bioterrorism andBiocrimes
The Illicit Use of Biological Agents Since 1900
W. Seth Carus
 August 1998(February 2001 Revision)Center for Counterproliferation ResearchNational Defense UniversityWashington, D.C.
 
iiOpinions, conclusions, and recommendations expressed or impliedwithin are solely those of the author, and do not necessarily represent theviews of the National Defense University, the Department of Defense, or anyother U.S. Government agency.This study documents numerous instances in which someone claimedthat individuals or groups engaged in criminal conduct. The sources of theallegations are documented in the text. Every effort has been made todistinguish between instances in which the alleged conduct led to criminalconvictions and those that were never authoritatively proven.This is a work in progress. The author welcomes comments,especially those that correct errors, identify additional cases for research, oridentify additional sources of information on any of the existing cases.
 Because additional research can change conclusions based on this data, the author encourages readers to contact him before they use of any of the data discussed in this manuscript.
Please direct comments to the followingaddress:Dr. W. Seth CarusCenter for Counterproliferation ResearchNational Defense UniversityFort McNair, Building 62, Room 211Washington, D.C. 20319-6000Voice: 202-685-2242Fax: 202-685-2264E-mail: caruss@ndu.edu
 
iii
Table of Contents
T
ABLE OF
C
ONTENTS
..........................................................................................................................
III
P
REFACE
..............................................................................................................................................
V
A
CKNOWLEDGEMENTS
......................................................................................................................
VII
PART I: BIOTERRORISM IN PERSPECTIVE...............................................................................1
C
HAPTER
1 : I
NTRODUCTION
...............................................................................................................3
What is Bioterrorism?....................................................................................................................3Studying Bioterrorism....................................................................................................................4
C
HAPTER
2 : T
HE
P
RACTICE
................................................................................................................7
 Experience of Bioterrorism............................................................................................................Trends in Bioterrorism.................................................................................................................10 Acquiring Biological Agents........................................................................................................12 Employing Biological Agents.......................................................................................................16 
C
HAPTER
3 : T
HE
P
RACTITIONERS
....................................................................................................25
 Nature of the Perpetrators...........................................................................................................25Terrorist Group Characteristics..................................................................................................27 Operational Considerations.........................................................................................................31
PART II: CASES.................................................................................................................................33
C
HAPTER
4 : C
ASE
D
EFINITION
.........................................................................................................35
Sources of information.................................................................................................................37  Assessing the data........................................................................................................................38Organization of cases...................................................................................................................39
C
HAPTER
5 : U
SE OF
B
IOLOGICAL
A
GENTS
.......................................................................................42
Confirmed Use..............................................................................................................................42Probable or Possible Use.............................................................................................................76 
C
HAPTER
6 : T
HREATENED
U
SE
........................................................................................................95
Threatened Use (Probable or Known Possession).......................................................................95Threatened Use (No Known Possession)...................................................................................104Threatened Use (Anthrax Hoaxes).............................................................................................122
C
HAPTER
7 : P
OSSESSION
................................................................................................................151
Confirmed Possession................................................................................................................151Probable or Possible Possession...............................................................................................154
C
HAPTER
8 : O
THER
........................................................................................................................161
Possible Interest in Acquisition (No Known Possession)...........................................................161False cases and hoaxes..............................................................................................................167 
APPENDIX A: LIST OF CASES....................................................................................................179
S
OURCES
..........................................................................................................................................199I
NDEX
..............................................................................................................................................205A
BOUT THE
A
UTHOR
.......................................................................................................................209

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