Larvae were produced by induce tospawn of adult clams using serotonin(
, 1985). Fertilization was done inconcrete tanks and the hatching rate duringthis study was found to be relatively high,i.e. 70% at trochopore stage (
First experiment: Streptomycin(Meiji; 10 ppm) was added at (a) beforefertilization, (b) after fertilization, and (c)control i.e. without antibiotic addition.Second experiment: three differenttreatments were conducted i.e. (a)Streptomycin (10 ppm), (b) Chloramphe-nicol (5 ppm) and (c) combination those twoantibiotics. These antibiotics were givenafter fertilization.
Zooxanthellae used in this experimentwere isolated from
Tridacna squamosa, T.maxima,
sp.Zooxanthellae from three different sourceswere given before metamorphoses at day 4,6, 9, 10, 12. For control, zooxanthellae (onlyfrom
) were given after metamorphoses at day 12, 13, and 14. Thenumber of larvae were counted daily for 34days. At the end of the experiments the sizeof the larvae was also measured.
Three treatments (inorganic nutrientaddition i.e. N, P and N+P) and control(without any nutrient addition) were carriedout with three reaplicates. Finalconcentration of nutrient given were 20
Mfor N (ammonium; NH4Cl) and 2
M for P(phosphorus; KH2PO4).
The microalgae used in the presentstudy were (1).
sp., andcontrol (without microalgae addition) Thesemicroalgae were given to two (2) days oldlarvae until metamorphoses.
Statistical analysis of data.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to analyse the data collected.Homogeneity of variances will be tested prior to ANOVA. Differences among themeans will be tested by Student NewmanKeuls test (
3. Results and Discussion
At the moment, one of the problemsfaced by giant clams aquaculture industryis high mortality rate of the larvae whichcan reach 90-95 % (
Fitt and Trench
, 1981).Antibiotics have been used as hatchery pratices to increase the survivorship of thelarvae (
Norton et al
., 1993 a,b).
Fitt et al
.(1992) stated that streptomicyn applicationin the larval tanks gave better survivorshipthan other antibiotics, such as neomycin, pinicylin dan rifampin. The bestconcentration of streptomycin which can beapplied is 10 ppm (
Fitt et al
., 1992).The results of this study showed thatapplying antibiotics before fertilization willincrease the survival rate of the larvae. Atthe end of the experiment, it was found thatthe addition of antibiotic beforefertilization significantly increased thesurvivorship of the larvae (P=6.47E-05).See Figure 1. (
Ambariyanto et al.,
Bilateral Workshop on Coastal Resources Exploration and Conservation,Bali, 13 – 15 October 2004