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Biomechanics of Posture

Biomechanics of Posture

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Published by: Pikachu on Sep 21, 2008
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POSTURE
Sagar Naik,
PT
 2
POSTURE
Sagar Naik,
PT
 Posture can be defined as the relative arrangement of different parts of  the body with line of gravity.
 
Static & Dynamic Posture:
 
 In static postures the body and its segments are aligned and maintained in certain positions.
 
Eg –
Standing, kneeling, lying, and sitting
 
 A dynamic posture refers to postures in which the body or its segments are moving.
 
Eg –
Walking, running, jumping, throwing, and lifting
The study of any particular posture includes kinetic and kinematic analyses of all body segments.
 
The erect posture allows persons to use their upper extremities for the performance of large and small motor tasks.
 
When the upper extremities are engaged by the use of crutches, canes, or otherassistive devices to maintain the erect posture, an important human attribute iseither severely compromised or lost.
Erect bipedal stance gives us freedom for the upper extremities, but incomparison with the quadrupedal posture, erect stance has certaindisadvantages.
Erect bipedal stance increases the work of the heart
Places increased stress on the vertebral column, pelvis, and lowerextremities
Reduces stability
In the quadruped posture the body weight is distributed between the upper andlower extremities.
In human stance the body weight is borne exclusively by the two lowerextremities.
The human species
 base of support (BOS)
, defined by an area boundedposteriorly by the tips of the heels and anteriorly by a line joining the tips of thetoes, is considerably smaller than the quadruped base.
The human’s
 center of gravity (COG)
, which is sometimes referred to as thebody’s center of mass, is located within the body approximately at the level of 
 
POSTURE
Sagar Naik,
PT
 3
the second sacral segment, a location that is relatively distant from the base of support.
 
 Despite the instability caused by a small base of support and a high center of  gravity, maintaining stability in the static erect posture requires very littleenergy expenditure in the form of muscle contraction.
 
 
The bones, joints, and ligaments are able to provide the major torques needed  to counteract gravity
and frequent changes in body position assist in producingcirculatory return.
 
 Postural Control:
 
Although only a minimal amount of muscular activity is required to maintain astable erect standing posture, the control of posture is complex and is a part of the body’s motor control system.
 
 Postural control 
, which can be either static or dynamic,
 refers to a person’s ability to maintain stability of the body segments in response to forces that threaten to disturb the body’s structural equilibrium
.
The ability to maintain stability in the erect standing posture is a skill that the
 central nervous system (CNS)
learns using information from passivebiomechanical elements, sensory systems, and muscles.
The CNS interprets and organizes inputs from the various structures andsystems and selects responses based on past experience and the goal of theresponse.
 
 Reactive (compensatory) responses occur as reactions to external forces that displace the body’s center of gravity.
 
 
 Proactive (anticipatory) responses occur in anticipation of internally generated destabilizing forces
such as raising one’s arms to catch a ball orbending forward to tie one’s shoes.
Goals & Basic Elements of Postural Control: 
The major goals of postural control in the erect position are
To control the body’s orientation in space
Maintain the body’s center of gravity over the base of support
Stabilize the head with respect to the vertical so that the eye gaze isapproximately oriented
 
 Maintenance and control of posture depends on the integrity of the CNS,visual system, vestibular system, and the musculoskeletal system.
Inaddition, postural control depends on
information from receptors located in
 
POSTURE
Sagar Naik,
PT
 4
 and around the joints (in joint capsule, tendons, & ligaments) as well as on the soles of the feet
.
The CNS must be able to detect and predict instability and must be able torespond to all of this input with appropriate output to maintain theequilibrium of the body.
Joints in the musculoskeletal system must have a range of motion (ROM)that is adequate for responding to specific tasks, and the muscles must beable to respond with appropriate speeds and forces.
 
 Absent or Altered Inputs & Outputs:
When inputs ore altered or absent, the control system must respond toincomplete or distorted data and thus the person’s posture may be alteredand stability compromised.
 
 Altered or absent inputs may occur either in the absence of the normal  gravitational force in weightless conditions during space flight, or when someone has decreased sensation in the lower extremities. Anotherinstance in which inputs may be disturbed is following injury.
 
In addition to altered inputs,
 a person’s ability to maintain the erect posture may be affected by altered outputs such as the inability of the muscles to respond appropriately to signals from the CNS
.
 
 Muscle Synergies:
 
 A normally functioning CNS selects the appropriate combination of  muscles to complete the task based on an analysis of sensory inputs.
 
Variations in an individual’s past experience and customary patterns of muscle activity will also affect the response.
 
 Muscle activation is based primarily on input from the hip and trunk proprioceptors. A second level of input includes cues from the vestibular system and proprioceptive input from all body segments.
 
 
 A perturbation is any sudden change in conditions that displaces the body posture away from equilibrium.
Perturbation can be sensory ormechanical.
Altering of visual input such as might occur when one’s eyes are coveredunexpectedly might cause a
 sensory perturbation
.
 
 Mechanical perturbation
is displacements that involve direct changes inthe relationship of center of gravity to the base of support.
These displacements may be caused either by movements of the body segments or of the entire body.
 
One method of producing mechanical perturbations experimentally is byplacing subjects on a movable platform.

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will b very gr8full if u let us know the references......really usefull
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extremely good job. Its very useful from the students point of view. Thanks a lot. Is the reference Joint Structure and Function by Cynthia C.Norkins?
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hw can i dwnload
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