the second sacral segment, a location that is relatively distant from the base of support.
Despite the instability caused by a small base of support and a high center of gravity, maintaining stability in the static erect posture requires very littleenergy expenditure in the form of muscle contraction.
The bones, joints, and ligaments are able to provide the major torques needed to counteract gravity
and frequent changes in body position assist in producingcirculatory return.
Although only a minimal amount of muscular activity is required to maintain astable erect standing posture, the control of posture is complex and is a part of the body’s motor control system.
, which can be either static or dynamic,
refers to a person’s ability to maintain stability of the body segments in response to forces that threaten to disturb the body’s structural equilibrium
The ability to maintain stability in the erect standing posture is a skill that the
central nervous system (CNS)
learns using information from passivebiomechanical elements, sensory systems, and muscles.
The CNS interprets and organizes inputs from the various structures andsystems and selects responses based on past experience and the goal of theresponse.
Reactive (compensatory) responses occur as reactions to external forces that displace the body’s center of gravity.
Proactive (anticipatory) responses occur in anticipation of internally generated destabilizing forces
such as raising one’s arms to catch a ball orbending forward to tie one’s shoes.
Goals & Basic Elements of Postural Control:
The major goals of postural control in the erect position are
To control the body’s orientation in space
Maintain the body’s center of gravity over the base of support
Stabilize the head with respect to the vertical so that the eye gaze isapproximately oriented
Maintenance and control of posture depends on the integrity of the CNS,visual system, vestibular system, and the musculoskeletal system.
Inaddition, postural control depends on
information from receptors located in