Notches have to be filed on the end of the plasticcore tube to clear stop pins used to hold the spool end.
the current is developed. This flux cutsthrough the turns of the secondary windingand through the laws of electromagnetic in-duction, a voltage is induced in the second-ary. If the secondary circuit is closed witha load, a current will flow. If the primaryhas 100 turns of wire and the secondary has10 turns, the ratio will be 10:1 or the voltagedeveloped in the secondary will be 1/10 of theapplied voltage or 10 volts, less a small valuefor losses and regulation.In commercial transformers the core ismade as a compact unit with a closed circuitfor the flux to be as short as possible. Thisminimizes leakage reactance.In our experiment the coil has about 800turns, or with 115 volts that is about seventurns per volt. Theoretically this would callfor about 7 x 6.3 or 44.1 turns on the second-ary to light a 6.3-volt pilot lamp. There are,however, certain iron and copper losses andmost important in this case the core does notprovide a closed path for the flux but issimply a bundle of straight iron strips andthe flux has to pass through the air in itspath from the top to the lower end so thecore, as a transformer is very inefficient.Therefore, you have to add more turns tooffset these losses.From experiment it was found that about78 turns on the secondary will producearound 6 volts to the lamp when the coilwas fully down on the base and only about1 volt while near the top.
This Difference in Voltage
is due to thefact that when at the top of the core, themaximum flux lines cannot cut throughthe secondary winding. The flux is weak atthis point so a weak voltage is induced. Onthe other hand, the greatest amount of fluxcan link through the turns when the coil isdown close to the main coil so maximumvoltage is developed. A secondary coil de-signed to be adjustable is the principle of aregulating transformer used for special ap-plications requiring variable voltage.You can demonstrate the principles ex-plained very easily with your repulsion coilby following the methods described. With alittle ingenuity you should be able to work out other interesting experiments.When operating the coil, do not hold theswitch button depressed any longer than nec-essary to perform the experiment, becausethe coil may overheat. It is designed to carrythe maximum amount of current it will standin order to provide good repulsion for thealuminum ling. Continuous use would causean overload on the winding. If the coil be-comes quite warm after a number of experi-ments, allow it to cool a while before con-tinuing.
(Fig. 3) by making upthe iron core. Cut enough pieces of 1/2-in.-wide and 6-in.-long soft sheet metal (see Ma-terials list) so that when clamped tightlytogether they make a stack about 9/16 in.thick. You can use almost any soft steel,except galvanized iron or turned sheet steeland the thickness is not too important. I usedstock that was 1/32 in. thick.Clamp the stock together and drill 1/8-in.holes for three iron rivets (Fig. 3). Also drillthe two small holes used for pin stops thathold the plastic coil spools. Round the cor-
SCIENCE nnd MECHANICS