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Pavement and Materials Design Manual 1999 - Chapter 3

Pavement and Materials Design Manual 1999 - Chapter 3

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Published by: Kisali Sarakikya on Aug 01, 2011
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 C a p t  e 3 
Ministry of WorksPavement and Materials Design Manual - 1999
Cross Section, Shoulders and  Drainage
Project appraisal
EnvironmentPavement Design-New RoadsTrafficSubgradeProblem SoilsPavement Materials
   D   E   S   I   G   N   E   L   E   M   E   N   T   S
PavementRehabilitationBituminousSurfacingsGravel Roads
   S   T   R   U   C   T   U   R   A   L   D   E   S   I   G   N
Comparison of alternatives andselection of designRefinement of design, if required
Cross Section, Shouldersand Drainage
Chapter 3
Cross Section,Shoulders and Drainage
avement and Materials Design Manual - 1999Ministry of Works
Comments:Required alterations to standard crosssections for design on problem soils aredescribed in
 /Chapter 6 - Problem Soils/. /Appendix A4/ 
outlines various crosssection features that give technicalbenefits
to the performance of thepavement.Bitumen surfaced shoulders will normallybe part of standard cross sections.Gravel surfaced shoulders are in generalnot recommended for reasons thatinclude:-
high demands for maintenance to perform adequately 
increased risks of water ingressinto the pavement layers
disadvantages to traffic safety,often made worse by a typical development of an edge drop fromthe surface to the gravel shoulder 
3.1 Standard Cross Section
The cross section design for a road is normally determined by currentgeometric standards applied to the project, including technicalconsiderations such as problem soils in the subgrade. Standard crosssections are given by the Ministry of Works for the various road types andare not included in this manual.
3.2 Shoulders
Shoulders are particularly important when granular materials are used inthe base course, requiring lateral support for the layer.Important functions of paved shoulders are:
provision of lateral support for pavement layers
minimising risks of moisture ingress into load bearing parts of thepavement
reducing changes in moisture contents in pavement layers
improved traffic safety by allowing occasional traffic outside thecarriagewayUse of the same pavement structure for the shoulders as for the adjacentcarriageway is the preferred method. The additional costs of using moreexpensive materials in the shoulders may be offset by simplifiedconstruction methods provided the shoulder widths are not excessive.
3.2.1Bearing capacity of the shoulders
Bearing capacity of the shoulders must be ensured by appropriate selectionof materials and layer thickness where shoulders are designed with adifferent pavement than the carriageway. Site conditions will determine therequired strength of the pavement depending on the likelihood of heavy trafficusing the shoulder, such as built-up areas or adjacent to climbing lanes.Use of the same pavement structure for the shoulders as for the adjacentcarriageway eliminates problems in achieving sufficient bearing capacityof the shoulders.
3.2.2 Surface treatments for shoulders
A durable and water proof type of bituminous surfacing shall be used onpaved shoulders. Priming alone is inadequate for treatment of shouldersand shall not be used without being followed by a bituminous seal.
Type of surfacing 
Type of seals with a closed texture shall be the preferred type of surfacing for the shoulder in order to prevent disintegration following lossof aggregate by drying out of the surfacing. Economical types of surfacing that provide a favourable texture and good durability are:
Ministry of Works
Chapter 3
Cross Section,Shoulders and Drainage
Pavement and Materials Design Manual - 1999
single surface dressing with a sand cover seal
single Otta Seal with a sand cover sealWhere a considerable amount of traffic is expected to use the shoulders,e.g. in towns and built up areas consideration shall be given to applyingthe same type of surfacing on the shoulders as on the adjacentcarriageway.
Colour and texture of the surface
Surface treatments for shoulders should wherever economically possiblebe designed to give the shoulders a different texture or colour than theadjacent carriageway.
3.2.3 Preventing cracks to develop in the shoulders
Longitudinal cracks
Longitudinal cracks in shoulders are normally associated with:
shrinkage in earthworks or pavement layers, often in conjunction withroad widening, due to differential changes in moisture contents overthe cross section after construction
settlement in earthworks, particularly in conjunction with roadwidening
expansive soils in the roadbedFavourable cross section details that minimise the movement of moistureover the cross section, thus the risk of cracks developing in the shoulders,are described in
 /Appendix A4/.
Good earthworks techniques for roadwidening, in accordance with Standard Specifications for HighwayConstruction minimise the risk of cracks caused by settlement inconjunction with road widening. Design and construction measures tominimise the risk of cracks developing in the shoulders due to expansivesoils are set out in
 /Chapter 6 – Problem Soils/.
Transversal cracks
Transversal crack that develop in shoulders are commonly associated withthermal movements in bituminous layers, but can also be caused byshrinkage in cemented pavement layers or self-cementing properties of natural gravel. There are no particular measures to be taken against thisform of cracking than to ensure that normal periodic maintenance byresealing is duly carried out.
3.2.4Unpaved shoulders
Shoulder materials shall meet the requirements for gravel wearing coursein the event that the shoulders will not receive a bituminous seal for anyreason. This cross section requires particular attention to the internaldrainage of the pavement layers as suitable gravel for the shoulders islikely to be nearly impermeable thus preventing drainage from the basecourse
 /Chapter 11 – Gravel Roads/.
Single surface dressing is not apreferred option as it tends to dry outquickly.
 /Chapter 10 - BituminousSurfacings/.
Traffic safety benefits can be achievedby selecting aggregates of a differentcolour for surface treatments of theshoulders than the carriageway,alternatively aggregate with a differentsize, or a different type of surfacingaltogether. Additional maintenance effort on manualsealing of cracks before the firstscheduled reseal is often sufficient toarrest cracks reoccurring once theyhave emerged. However, expansivesoils that produce very active cracksnormally require repeated crack repairsif design and construction counter-measures have been insufficient to fullyprevent damage.

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