Ministry of Works
Cross Section,Shoulders and Drainage
Pavement and Materials Design Manual - 1999
single surface dressing with a sand cover seal
single Otta Seal with a sand cover sealWhere a considerable amount of traffic is expected to use the shoulders,e.g. in towns and built up areas consideration shall be given to applyingthe same type of surfacing on the shoulders as on the adjacentcarriageway.
Colour and texture of the surface
Surface treatments for shoulders should wherever economically possiblebe designed to give the shoulders a different texture or colour than theadjacent carriageway.
3.2.3 Preventing cracks to develop in the shoulders
Longitudinal cracks in shoulders are normally associated with:
shrinkage in earthworks or pavement layers, often in conjunction withroad widening, due to differential changes in moisture contents overthe cross section after construction
settlement in earthworks, particularly in conjunction with roadwidening
expansive soils in the roadbedFavourable cross section details that minimise the movement of moistureover the cross section, thus the risk of cracks developing in the shoulders,are described in
Good earthworks techniques for roadwidening, in accordance with Standard Specifications for HighwayConstruction minimise the risk of cracks caused by settlement inconjunction with road widening. Design and construction measures tominimise the risk of cracks developing in the shoulders due to expansivesoils are set out in
/Chapter 6 Problem Soils/.
Transversal crack that develop in shoulders are commonly associated withthermal movements in bituminous layers, but can also be caused byshrinkage in cemented pavement layers or self-cementing properties of natural gravel. There are no particular measures to be taken against thisform of cracking than to ensure that normal periodic maintenance byresealing is duly carried out.
Shoulder materials shall meet the requirements for gravel wearing coursein the event that the shoulders will not receive a bituminous seal for anyreason. This cross section requires particular attention to the internaldrainage of the pavement layers as suitable gravel for the shoulders islikely to be nearly impermeable thus preventing drainage from the basecourse
/Chapter 11 Gravel Roads/.
Single surface dressing is not apreferred option as it tends to dry outquickly.
/Chapter 10 - BituminousSurfacings/.
Traffic safety benefits can be achievedby selecting aggregates of a differentcolour for surface treatments of theshoulders than the carriageway,alternatively aggregate with a differentsize, or a different type of surfacingaltogether. Additional maintenance effort on manualsealing of cracks before the firstscheduled reseal is often sufficient toarrest cracks reoccurring once theyhave emerged. However, expansivesoils that produce very active cracksnormally require repeated crack repairsif design and construction counter-measures have been insufficient to fullyprevent damage.