(Taken from Google Document)
- A blue or purple mottled discoloration of the extremities, esp. the fingers, toes and/or nose. This physical finding is associated with many diseases and conditions, such as anorexia nervosa, autoimmune diseases,cold agglutinins, or Raynaud’s disease or phenomenon. Cyanosis of the extremities may be commonly observed innewborns and in others after exposure to cold temperatures, and in those patients with reduced cardiac output. In patients with suspected hypoxemia, it is an unreliable sign of diminished oxygenation.
- or startle reflex- a reflex seen in infants in response to stimuli, such as that produced by suddenly strikingthe surface on which the infant rests. The infant responds by rapid abduction and extension of the arms followed by an embracing motion of the arms.
- a mass composed of clotted blood, located between the periosteum and the skull of a newborn.It is confined between suture lines and usually is unilateral. The cause is rupture of periosteal bridging veins due to pressure and friction during labor and delivery. The blood reabsorbs gradually within a few weeks of birth.
- diffuse edema of the fetal scalp that crosses the suture lines. Head compression against thecervix impedes venous return, forcing serum into the interstitial tissues. The swelling reabsorbs within 1 to 3 days.
- a channel of communication between the main pulmonary artery and the aorta of the fetus.
- the smaller, shorter, and posterior of two branches into which the umbilical vein divides after entering the abdomen of the fetus. It empties into the inferior vena cava.
-anterior and posterior-where located?-why?-shape?- an unossified membrane or soft spot lying betweenthe cranial bones of the skull of a fetus or infant.Anterior- the diamond-shaped junction of the coronal, frontal, and sagittal sutures; it becomes ossified within 18 to24 months.Posterior- the triangular fontanel at the junction of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures; ossified by the end of the firstyear.
- The opening between the two atria of the fetal heart. It usually closes shortly after birth as a resultof hemodynamic changes related to respiration.
shaping of the fetal head to adapt itself to the dimensions of the birth canal during its descent throughthe pelvis.
(papules, 24-28 hr.-newborn rash) a benign, self-limited rash marked by firm, yellow-white papules or pustules from 1 to 2 mm in size present in about 50% of full-term infants. The cause is unknown, andthe lesions disappear without need for treatment.
most common eye infection- of the conjunctiva usually caused by chemical burns.
- a protective sebaceous deposit covering the fetus during intrauterine life, consisting of exfoliations of the outer skin layer, lanugo, and secretions of the sebaceous glands. It is most abundant in thecreases and flexor surfaces. It is not necessary to remove this after the fetus is delivered.
- fine downy hairs that cover the body of the fetus, esp. when premature. The presence and amount of lanugo aids in estimating the gestational age of preterm infants. The fetus first exhibits lanugo between weeks 13and 16. By gestational week 20, it covers the face and body. The amount of lanugo is greatest between weeks 28and 30. As the third trimester progresses, lanugo disappears from the face, trunk, and extremities.
- white pinhead-size, keratin-filled cyst. In the newborn, milia occur on the face and, less frequently, on thetrunk, and usually disappear without treatment within several weeks.
telangiectatic nevi or hemangioma
- (stork bite) a benign tumor of dilated blood vessels.
- bluish-black areas of pigmentation may appear over any part of the exterior surface of the body.Commonly noted whose ethnic origins are in the Mediterranean area, Latin America, Asia, or Africa