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PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Layout and EMI (Electromagnetic i..

PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Layout and EMI (Electromagnetic i..

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PCB (printed circuit board) layout optimization to avoid EMI (electromagnetic interference). A PCB layout should not only strive to prevent the emission of noise but also have good noise immunity from outside sources. One should have an understanding of potential sources of noise and have a strategy for dealing with these problems.



PCB (printed circuit board) layout optimization to avoid EMI (electromagnetic interference). A PCB layout should not only strive to prevent the emission of noise but also have good noise immunity from outside sources. One should have an understanding of potential sources of noise and have a strategy for dealing with these problems.

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Published by: Ionela on Sep 21, 2008
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PCB (printed circuit board) Layout and EMI (electromagnetic interfer...http://dev.emcelettronica.com/print/519691 din 221.09.2008 11:27
Your Electronics Open Source
(http://dev.emcelettronica.com)
Home > Blog > John Artiuch's blog > Contenuti
PCB (printed circuit board) Layout and EMI(electromagnetic interference)
By John ArtiuchCreated 09/20/2008 - 10:44
Pcb cad EMI PCB PCB layout printed circuit boardTo have a smart PCB layout that controls or eliminates any electromagnetic interference(EMI)and noise is the most important aspects of a good reliable design.This is especially important in multi layer PCB designs. A noisy system can lead tounpredictable logic and phase-locked loop failures that reduce overall reliability, as well thereis potential that the device will not pass government standards for EMI.The main sources of noise in embedded systems come from switching power supplies,common mode current, noisy ground islands, high frequency switching signals, oscillators,phase-locked loop circuits, crosstalk between signals, the transmission line effect, and fromhardware sources like disk drives. For example, when two high frequency signal lines areclose together they can couple due to their capacitances and mutual inductance. Signal linescan effectively act like antennas emitting electromagnetic waves. Decoupling capacitors ofthe power and ground planes can be used to short circuit or filter noise, however this onlyworks to a certain frequency. High frequencies are a lot trickier to deal with and require moreadvanced filters to stop noise from affecting adjacent circuits.A good PCB layout which considers current paths, return loops as well the physical locationof certain components relative to one another can dramatically reduce noise and radiation.The best place to start is looking at the noise generated in the power supply lines. This noisecomes from current spikes caused by switching logic or instantaneous current requests fromdevices down the line. The problem gets worse as the frequency of the switching increases.Decoupling capacitors between power and ground do help in terms of smoothing out thevoltage spikes but this will not significantly eliminate EMI. In some cases the addition of aninductor behind the decoupling capacitor can help eliminate some of the current instability.The inductor has high resistance at high frequencies impeding some of the noise. To avoidexcessive impedance a resistor in parallel can limit the inductors effects. The inductor shouldbe placed as close as possible to the area of the circuit that is generating the noise. Next allthe traces should be kept as short as possible cutting down on the effective area of the loopsthat act as antennas. One way to achieve this is by simply placing IC’s that interact at higherfrequencies right next to one another, making it possible for shorter traces. Also, signal linescan run parallel to the return lines or ground lines cutting down on the surface area of theloop. All unused areas can be plated with copper and connected to ground at several points,adding extra shielding. Another trick is based around the oscillator in the system. This isusually the area of the circuit where the highest frequencies are present, sometimes a goodthing to do is to add a resistor in series with the oscillator output to slow down the rise and falledges of the signal. To keep phase-locked loops clean and unaffected by noise, the bestsolution is to isolate the loops from the actual power supply. This can be accomplished by

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