A computerized hydraulic suspension system that uses hydraulic "actuators" instead of conventionalsprings and shock absorbers to support the vehicle's weight. A "chassis computer" monitors ride height,wheel deflection, body roll and acceleration to control ride and body attitude. Bumps are sensed as theyare encountered, causing the computer to vent pressure from the wheel actuator as the wheel floats over the bump. Once the bump has passed, the computer opens a vent that allows hydraulic pressure toextend the actuator back to its original length. The only production active suspension was used on theInfiniti Q45.
AIR CONDITIONING (A/C)
A system that cools and dehumidifies air entering the passenger compartment. The system uses arefrigerant to cool the air and carry heat away from the passenger compartment. Major systemcomponents include a compressor, condenser, evaporator, accumulator or receiver/dryer, and orifice tubeor expansion valve. Do not intermix different types of refrigerants in an A/C system. Use the typespecified by the vehicle manufacturer (R12 for most 1994 & older vehicles, or R134a for most 1995 andnewer vehicles). For more information, seeTroubleshooting Air Conditioning Problems. Also seeRetrofit.
AIR DELIVERY SYSTEM
Also called plenum, HVAC unit or evaporator housing. This component contains the air ducts, doors andblower fan that deliver air through or around the evaporator and heater cores. It then delivers air tovarious passenger compartment outlets and ducts.
A filter used to keep dirty air from entering the engine. The filter element is typically resin impregnatedcellulose fibers (paper) with a mixture of synthetic fibers. The filter is located in a housing that is attachedto the throttle body, or in a housing that sits atop the carburetor. SeeCheck Your Air Filter
A device that is used in many electronic fuel injection systems (See Electronic Fuel Injection) for measuring the volume of air entering the engine. Some use a spring loaded vane while others use a hotwire or heated filament to sense air flow.
This is the relative proportion of air and fuel delivered by the carburetor or fuel injection to the engine. The"ideal" air/fuel ratio is 14.7 parts of air to every one part fuel. Less air or more fuel and the mixture is saidto be rich. More air or less fuel and the mixture is said to be lean. Rich mixtures provide more power butalso use more fuel and increase exhaust emissions. Lean mixtures use less fuel, but if too lean causemisfiring at idle. An engine requires a richer mixture when starting (See Choke) and while warming up.