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Tehnologija-livenja

Tehnologija-livenja

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Published by: aantic76 on Aug 01, 2011
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10/02/2014

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Vi{a tehni~ka {kolaSuboticaDr Zoran Ani{i}
PROIZVODNE TEHNOLOGIJE II
-
 
skripta – 
TEHNOLOGIJA LIVENJA
Subotica, 2003.
 
 1
SADR@AJ
1.
 
TEHNOLO[KI CIKLUS IZRADE ODLIVAKA.......................................................................0
 1.1 PROJEKTOVANJE
 
I
 
RAZRADA
 
TEHNOLO[KOG
 
POSTUPKA
 
IZRADE
 
KALUPA
 
ZA
 
LIVENJE...........................................................................................11.2 KONSTRUKCIJA
 
ODLIVAKA..............................................................................................11.3 IZBOR
 
TEHNOLOGIJE
 
LIVENJA.........................................................................................41.4 OSNOVNI
 
TEHNOLO[KI
 
PARAMETRI
 
KALUPA...........................................................13
1.4.1
 
 Klasifikacija odlivaka.....................................................................................................13
 
1.4.2
 
Tehnolo{ka razrada crte`a odlivka................................................................................15
 
1.4.3
 
 Parametri kalupa za livenje...........................................................................................20
 1.5 ULIVNI
 
SISTEMI..................................................................................................................221.6 NAPAJANJE
 
ODLIVAKA....................................................................................................26
1.6.1
 
 Zakonitosti napajanja odlivaka......................................................................................26
 
1.6.2
 
 Modul odlivka.................................................................................................................27 
 
1.6.3
 
 Hranitelji - (vrste i oblici) -............................................................................................28
 
1.6.4
 
 Hladila............................................................................................................................29
 1.7 MODELI
 
ZA
 
LIVENJE.........................................................................................................30
1.7.1
 
 Drveni modeli.................................................................................................................31
 
1.7.2
 
 Modeli od gipsa..............................................................................................................33
 
1.7.3
 
 Modeli od ve{ta~kih smola.............................................................................................33
 
1.7.4
 
 Metalni modeli................................................................................................................35
 
1.7.5
 
 Modeli za jednokratnu upotrebu....................................................................................35
 
2.
 
LIVENJE U PESKU....................................................................................................................36
 2.1 MATERIJALI
 
ZA
 
IZRADU
 
PE[^ANIH
 
KALUPA
 
I
 
JEZGARA........................................36
 2.1.1
 
 Pesak..............................................................................................................................36
 
 2.1.2
 
Gline...............................................................................................................................37 
 
 2.1.3
 
 Priprema kalupne me{avine...........................................................................................37 
 
 2.1.4
 
 Dodaci i premazi............................................................................................................40
 2.2 IZRADA
 
PE[^ANIH
 
KALUPA...........................................................................................40
 2.2.1
 
 Ru~na izrada kalupa.......................................................................................................41
 
 2.2.2
 
 Izrada kalupa na ma{inama...........................................................................................42
 2.3 IZRADA
 
PE[^ANIH
 
JEZGARA..........................................................................................44
 2.3.1
 
 Postupak - cold box........................................................................................................44
 
 2.3.2
 
 Postupak hardox - SO
 2
...................................................................................................44
 
 2.3.3
 
 Postupak hot-box............................................................................................................45
 
 2.3.4
 
[koljkasta jezgra............................................................................................................45
 
 2.3.5
 
 Postupak sa CO
 2
.............................................................................................................45
 
 2.3.6
 
Uljna jezgra....................................................................................................................45
 
3.
 
LIVENJE POD PRITISKOM.....................................................................................................46
 3.1 PRIKAZ
 
POSTUPAKA
 
LIVENJA
 
POD
 
PRITISKOM.........................................................463.2 LIVENJE
 
NA
 
MA[INAMA
 
SA
 
TOPLOM
 
KOMOROM.....................................................463.3 LIVENJE
 
NA
 
MA[INAMA
 
SA
 
HLADNOM
 
KOMOROM.................................................473.4 PARAMETRI
 
LIVENJA
 
POD
 
PRITISKOM........................................................................473.5 LIVENJE
 
POD
 
NISKIM
 
PRITISKOM..................................................................................49
 
 2
4.
 
GRAVITACIONO LIVENJE.....................................................................................................50
 4.1 KARAKTERISTIKE
 
POSTUPKA........................................................................................504.2 TEHNOLOGIJA
 
GRAVITACIONOG
 
LIVENJA.................................................................51
 4.2.1
 
 Konstrukcija odlivka......................................................................................................51
 
 4.2.2
 
 Kokile za livenje.............................................................................................................52
 
5.
 
CENTRIFUGALNO LIVENJE..................................................................................................53
 5.1 POSTUPAK
 
CENTRIFUGALNOG
 
LIVENJA.....................................................................535.2 OBLAST
 
PRIMENE
 
CENTRIFUGALNOG
 
LIVENJA
 
U
 
IZRADI
 
ODLIVKA..................55
6.
 
PRECIZNO LIVENJE - PRECIZNI LIV -...............................................................................55
 6.1 OBLAST
 
PRIMENE
 
I
 
SPECIFI^NOST
 
ODLIVAKA..........................................................566.2 PRIKAZ
 
POSTUPKA
 
PRECIZNOG
 
LIVENJA....................................................................56
6.2.1
 
 Izrada vo{tanih modela..................................................................................................57 
 
6.2.2
 
 Izrada kerami~ke {koljke................................................................................................57 
 
6.2.3
 
Ulivanje..........................................................................................................................58
 
7.
 
^I[]ENJE ODLIVAKA.............................................................................................................58
 7.1 GRUBO
 
^I[]ENJE
 
ODLIVKA............................................................................................597.2 POVR[INSKO
 
^I[]ENJE....................................................................................................597.3 BRU[ENJE
 
ODLIVAKA......................................................................................................60
8.
 
GRE[KE NA ODLIVCIMA.......................................................................................................61
 8.1 KLASIFIKACIJA
 
GRE[AKA...............................................................................................61
8.1.1
 
Srh (A 111).....................................................................................................................62
 
8.1.2
 
[upljine (B 111) - gasni mehuri....................................................................................62
 
8.1.3
 
 Prekid mase....................................................................................................................63
 
8.1.4
 
Gre{ke na povr{ini odlivaka...........................................................................................63
 
8.1.5
 
 Nepotpuna izlivenost......................................................................................................64
 
8.1.6
 
 Neta~ne mere ili oblika..................................................................................................64
 
8.1.7 
 
Uklju~ci i nepravilna struktura......................................................................................64
 8.2 POPRAVKA
 
ODLIVAKA....................................................................................................65
8.2.1
 
 Popravka sa gitovanjem.................................................................................................65
 
8.2.2
 
 Popravka zavarivanjem..................................................................................................66
 
8.2.3
 
 Poravka koni~nim navojnim ~epovima..........................................................................67 
 
8.2.4
 
 Popravak odlivka impregnacijom..................................................................................67 
 

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