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Table Of Contents

Abstract
Introduction
Problem Statement
Background Research
Prior Art
Comparison of Commercially Available Inverters
Examination of an Existing Design
Figure 2: A Modified Sine Wave Inverter
DC to AC Inversion
Square Wave Inverters
Figure 3: Square Wave
Modified Sine Wave Inverters
Figure 6: Modified Sine Wave Harmonic Analysis
Pure Sine Wave Inverters
2-Level PWM
Figure 8: 2-Level PWM Output (Unfiltered)
Figure 10: 2-Level PWM Output (Filtered)
3-Level PWM
Figure 11: 3-Level PWM Comparison Control Signals
Figure 13: Simulated 3-Level PWM Output (Unfiltered)
Figure 14: Simulated 3-Level PWM Output (Filtered)
Figure 15: 3-Level PWM Harmonics Analysis of Unfiltered Output
Examining 3-Level PWM in Practice
Figure 16: Block Diagram from "DC/AC Pure Sine Wave Inverter" MQP
5-Level PWM
Figure 17:5-Level PWM Simulation Circuit
Figure 18: 5-Level PWM Comparison Signals
Figure 20: 5-Level PWM Output (unfiltered)
Figure 22: 5-Level PWM Harmonics Analysis of Unfiltered Output
IGBTs vs. Power MOSFETs
Amplitude Modulation
Figure 23: Filtered Outputs ma 0.1 to 0.95
Figure 24: Bipolar PWM Test Circuit
H-Bridge Components and Power Losses
IRFP460A MOSFET
IR2304 MOSFET Driver IC
Figure 25: IR23047
Power Loss and Heat
Typical PWM
Our Design
Filter Components
Control Signal Generation for 2-Level PWM
A Stable Operation Voltage
Figure 26: Voltage vs. State of Charge of a Sealed Lead Acid Battery10
Figure 27: Dropout Voltage of the LM317 11
Triangle Wave Generator
Figure 30: Output of the Triangle Wave Generator
Sine Wave Generator
Figure 31: Schmitt Trigger Oscillator
Figure 32: Butterworth Low-Pass Filter
Figure 33: Square and Sine Waves from the Above Circuits
Figure 38: Comparator Circuit
Figure 39 PWM Signals for Both Halves of the H-Bridge
Figure 41: TL494 Inputs
Figure 43: Half-Wave Rectifier Outputs
Figure 45: Outputs of the Inverting Amplfiers
Figure 46: TL494 Configuration
Figure 47: Sampling the Input with a Saw-Tooth Wave
Figure 49: PWM Signal from the TL494 (Top) and its Inversion (Bottom)
Figure 50: Alternating PWM Signals for Both High Side Gate Half-Cycles
Results
Figure 51: Final Inverter Design
Low-Voltage Test
Figure 52: Low-Voltage Test Half-Bridge Vgs Waveforms
Figure 53:Filtered Low-Voltage Output across 12VDC Headlight
Figure 54: Low-Voltage Output Cross-Over Distortion
High Voltage Testing
200W Resistive Load
Figure 55: High Voltage Half-Bridge Vgs Waveforms
Figure 56: High-Voltage Filtered Output Waveform (showing Breakdown Distortion)
Figure 58: Unfiltered Output FFT w/200W Resistive Load
Figure 59: Output FFT showing 60Hz peak
Inductive Load Test
Figure 60: Unfiltered Output with Inductive Load
Printed Circuit Board
Figure 61: Sine Wave Inverter PCB
Figure 62: Populated PCB
Figure 63: PCB gate voltage waveforms (one half-bridge)
Figure 64: PCB filtered output waveform
Power Efficiency
Conclusion and Recommendations
References
Appendix A: Circuit Schematic
Appendix B: Parts List
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PWM Techniques Final

PWM Techniques Final

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Published by Andrei Biro

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Published by: Andrei Biro on Aug 02, 2011
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