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Intro Microbiology

Intro Microbiology

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: querokeropi on Aug 02, 2011
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11/07/2012

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Faculty of PharmacyDepartment of Medical Technology
36 QUERO, Marc Delvin37 QUERUBIN, Ryan38 RAMOS, Ma. Nicolei39 RASPADO, Raphaelle40 RAVELO, Aimee41 ROBLE, Maria Lourdes
(Group 6, 1-G BSMT) 
 PROF. CARMELITA C. CARDONA 
Introduction to Medical Technology with STS 
October 2009
 
WHAT IS MICROBIOLOGY?
Microbiology is the study of very small living organisms- organisms called microorganisms or microbes. Microorganisms are said to be
ubiquitous
, meaning they are virtually everywhere.
Microbiology is the branch of biological sciences involving study of all infectious diseases caused bybacteria, viruses and fungal infections
Microbiology includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology and other branches.
WHY STUDY MICROBIOLOGY?
Although they are very small, microorganisms play significant roles in our lives.
Indigenous microflora
or “normal flora”. Includes all the microbes that resides on and within thehuman body. These microorganisms are beneficial to us. They inhibit the growth of pathogens inthose areas of the body where they live by occupying space, depleting the food supply, andsecreting materials that may prevent or reduce the growth of pathogens.
NOTE: A fetus has no indigenous microflora.
Some of the organisms that colonize (inhibit) our bodies are known as
opportunistic pathogens
(or 
opportunists
). These organisms do not cause any problems, they have the potential to causeinfections if they gain access to a part of our anatomy where they do not belong. (e.g
E. coli 
lives inour intestinal tracts. This organism does not cause us any harm as long as it stays in our intestinaltract but can cause disease if it gains access to our urinary bladder, bloodstream or a wound.
Some microbes produce oxygen by the process known as photosynthesis. Thus organisms thatrequire O2 – humans for example owe a debt of gratitude to the algae and cyanobacteria thatproduce oxygen.
Many microbes are involved in the decomposition of dead organisms and the waste products of living organisms. They are known as
decomposers
 
or 
saprophytes
.
They aid in aid in fertilizationby returning inorganic nutrients to the soil. They break down dead and dying organic materials(plants and animals) into nitrates, phosphates and other chemicals necessary for he growth of plants.
Many microbes are essential in various food and beverage industries, whereas others are used toproduce certain enzymes and chemicals. The use of microorganisms in industry is called
biotechnology 
.
Some bacteria and fungi produce antibiotics that are used to treat patients with infectious diseases.By definition, an antibiotic is a substance produced by a microorganism that is effective in killing or inhibiting the growth of other microorganisms.
Diseases. Microorganisms cause two categories of diseases: infectious and microbial intoxications.Anyone pursuing a career in a healthcare profession must be aware of infectious diseases, thepathogens that cause them, the sources of the pathogens, how these diseases are transmitted, andhow to protect yourself and your patients from these diseases.
 
BACTERIA
Bacteria were one of the first microorganisms to be observed by human. In 1676, Antoine vanLeeuwenhoek, using a single lens microscope first observed bacteria. He called bacteria as
animalcules
.The name
bacterium
was introduced much later by Christian Ehrenberg in 1838.Bacteria are prokaryotic cells. Bacteria have no nucleus.95% of the known bacteria are non-pathogensOnly 1% and about 4% of the all known bacteria cause human diseases and plant diseases respectively.
CELL MORPHOLOGY OF BACTERIA
There are three basic shapes of bacteria:
1.
cocci 
 
(round or spherical bacteria)
2.
bacilli 
(rod-shaped or rectangular bacteria) and
3.
spirillum
(curved and spiral-shaped bacteria)
Cocci 
may be seen singly or in pairs(
diplococci 
), chains (
streptococci 
), clusters(
staphylococci 
), packets of four (
tetrads
) or packets of eight (
octads
).
Bacilli 
(often referred to as rods) may beor long, thick or thin and pointed or with curved or blunt ends.
Bacilli 
may be occur in singly, in pairs(
diplobacilli 
), in chains (
streptobacilli 
), in long filamentsor branched. Some rods are quite short, resembling elongated cocci (
coccobacilli 
).
FUNGI
Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that do not contain chlorophyll, but have cell walls, filamentous structures,and produce spores. These organisms grow as saprophytes and decompose dead organic matter. Thereare between 100,000 to 200,000 species depending on how they are classified. About 300 species arepresently known to be pathogenic for man.There are four types of mycotic diseases: 1.
Hypersensitivity
- an allergic reaction to molds and spores.2.
Mycotoxicoses
- poisoning of man & animals by feeds & food products contaminated by fungi which producetoxins from the grain substrate.3.
Mycetismus
- the ingestion of preformed toxin (mushroom poisoning).4.
Infection
 

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