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Roberto Assagioli (Unknown)

Roberto Assagioli (Unknown)

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Published by: Blankety Blank on Sep 22, 2008
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ROBERTO ASSAGIOLI
Roberto Assagioli (1888-1974), the founder of Psychosynthesis, in his conception of the wholehuman being included both the discoveries of psychoanalysis and the wisdom of spiritualtraditions. He saw that, although psychologyand spirituality are distinct domains, thoseengaged in a spiritual search often needpsychological help in integrating their experiences. Conversely a psychology whichdoes not honour the spiritual dimension cannotspeak for the whole person.He recognised the spiritual longing of personsin our present cultural wasteland. In connectionwith this he said:
 
"One major reason why the Self is coming back into currency is the tremendoussearch for self identity. Formerly an individual took himself so to speak for granted. He accepted himself as he was, or, more frequently, he identifiedhimself with the group to which he belonged, family, tribe, clan, class, or nationor, if he was religious, with some great Being or God. But in our time, which maywell be a time of total crisis, all these identifications fall away and the individual isthrown back on himself. This baffles him, he does not know who he is and this isthe chief reason for the widespread 'existential anguish'."
 A Height Psychology
Assagioli. talked of psychosynthesis asessentially an attitude, an inclusive approach tothe psyche which began from the premise thatthe whole is. We do not make ourselves whole.In potential we are already whole and thisunbroken wholeness within each of us can berecognised. Rather than trying to untie the knotsof our alienation, we could create a newperspective for our identity by shifting our attention away from the habitual patterns of conditioning to the underlying wholeness of whowe essentially are. In many ways he was
 
reiterating what spiritual teachers have said over centuries, namely that we areasleep to our true nature and we need to 'Wake up!'Psychosynthesis offers a vision of 'What We May Be', as Piero Ferrucci hasentitled his book. In this way Assagioli was seeking to give an optimistic andencouraging message about the capacities of the human psyche. This was inmarked contrast to Freud's pessimistic conclusions about human nature as atbest a compromise between our instinctual needs for gratification and socialdemands.Yet although he was dissatisfied with the Freudian approach Assagioli himself never intended to set up a separate school of psychology, but more of a wider perspective within which Freud's contribution would have its place. In a muchquoted letter to Bingswanger, Freud described his work as limited to exploringthe ground and basement of the 'house', leaving the attic to be explored byothers. Assagioli did just that and often described his work as 'HeightPsychology'.In looking at the bias towards height in psychosynthesis it is important to placeAssagioli's contribution within its historical setting. The beginning of the twentiethcentury marked the phenomenal success of science in explaining the world andthe rise of technology in controlling nature. In a Promethean whirl of excitementwith 'his' new found powers, 'man' was set to conquer all - even his own psyche.If the infant science of psychology was to be taken at all seriously, it needed tohave scientific pretensions. Despite Freud's own artistic inclinations heembedded psychoanalysis in a mechanistic framework of drives and usedhydraulic metaphors to explain the relationship between the conscious andunconscious.Psychosynthesis is an expansionistic psychology rather than a reductive one.Instead of reductively analysing the psyche to a supposedly basic trauma in thepast, Assagioli aimed to expand the client's awareness to include more of whothey were. If psychology was losing its soul to the scientists, here was amovement in the opposite direction to link psychology with spirituality.Assagioli was clear that psychosynthesis could not pretend to be a spiritualteaching, but it could attempt to re-interpret universal spiritual wisdom intopsychological insight. Although, like many spiritual teachers he made much of testing things out through experience rather than just believing them, his was nottruly an empirically based psychology - despite claims to the contrary by such asFerrucci. He took key principles from different esoteric spiritual approaches andput them into a psychological context. Assagioli based psychosynthesis onesoteric psychology and the work of Alice Bailey in particular.This is part of what gives psychosynthesis that strange sense of revealed truth.New students intuitively recognise much of the archetypal ideas that are beingpresented but little is acknowledged about the roots of these ideas. It is as if 

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