Asian Australasian J Anim Sci 2003 vol 16, No 7:1071-1086
Reproductive Biotechnologies for Improvement of Buffalo:The Current Status
G N Purohit, G P Duggal, D Dadarwal, Dinesh Kumar, RC Yadav and SVyas
Department of Veterinary Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rajasthan AgriculturalUniversity, Bikaner 334001 India.
Reproductive biotechnologies continue to be developed for geneticimprovement of both river and swamp buffalo. Although artificialinsemination using frozen semen emerged some decades back, there arestill considerable limitations. The major problem appears to be the lack of efficient methods for estrus detection and timely insemination. Controlledbreeding experiments in the buffalo had been limited and similar to thoseapplied in cattle. Studies on multiple ovulation and embryo transfer areessentially a replica of those in cattle, however with inherent problems suchas lower number of primordial follicles on the buffalo ovary, poor fertility andseasonality of reproduction, lower population of antral follicles at all stagesof the estrous cycle, poor endocrine status and a high incidence of deepatresia in ovarian follicles, the response in terms of transferable embryorecovery has remained low with 0.51 to 3.0 per donor and pregnancy ratesbetween 15-30%.
production of buffalo embryos is a valid alternativeto recovery of embryos by superovulation. This aspect received considerableattention during the past decade, however the proportion of embryos thatdevelop to the blastocyst stage is still around 25-30% and hence the in
culture procedures need substantial improvement. Embryo cryopreservationprocedures for direct transfer post thaw need to be developed for bubalineembryos. Nucleas transfer and embryo cloning is a technique that hasreceived attention in various species during recent years and can be of immense value in buffaloes as they have a low rate of embryo recovery byboth
procedures. Gender pre-selection, genome analysis,gene mapping and gene transfer are a few of the techniques that have beenstudied to a limited extent during recent years and are likely to be includedin future studies on buffaloes. Very recently, reproductive biotechnologieshave been applied to feral buffaloes as well, but the results obtained so far