544 DESIGN OF TASKS AND JOBS
depended on both perceived usability and hedonicattributes. The ﬁndings are not surprising; the use anduser experience of a product are important in productevaluation (Khalid and Helander, 2004).Jordan (2002) noted that a product or serviceoffering should engage the people for whom it isdesigned at three abstraction levels: First, it has to beable to perform the task for which it was designed.For example, a car has to be able to take the userfrom point A to B. The product’s functionality shouldwork well and it should be easy to use (i.e., usabilityfunction). The second level relates to the emotionsassociated with the product or service, in the contextof the associated tasks. These emotions are part of the “user experience.” For example, when using anautomated teller machine, feelings of trust and securitymight be appropriate. Driving a sports car should beexciting, but there should also be a sense of safety. Thethird level reﬂects the aspirational qualities associatedwith the product or service (i.e., persona or socialfactors). What does owning the product or using theservice say about the user? For example, owning thelatest, smallest mobile phone may suggest a pretty coolperson. Meeting these requirements makes a case notonly for the ergonomics of the product or service, butfor emotional design and achievement of social statusas well.Emotion affects how we feel, how we behaveand think; and it has gained signiﬁcant attentionin interaction design. For example, the iPod is therunaway best seller of MP3 players, although it wasmarketed late and is more expensive than competingmodels. To consumers, the iPod is easy to use andaesthetically appealing—it is
is said to be the customer’s psychological response tothe design details of the product, while
is theemotion that accompanies the acquisition or possessionof something good or desirable (Demirbilek and Sener,2003).Beyond pleasure, a new debate focused on “fun”is emerging in the human–computer interaction liter-ature. Things are fun when they attract, capture, andhold our attention by provoking new or unusual per-ceptions and arousing emotions. They are fun whenthey surprise us, and present challenges or puzzles aswe try to make sense of them.A review of the psychological literature on emo-tions by Fredrickson (1998) showed that positive emo-tions such as joy, interest, contentment, and love thatshare a pleasant subjective feeling have inadvertentlybeen marginalized in research compared to negativeemotions. Two reasons for this are (1) that positiveemotions are few in number and rather diffuse; and(2) that negative emotions pose problems that demandattention. For example, anger and its management havebeen implicated in the etiology of heart disease, andso on. Positive emotions should therefore, be tappedto promote individual and collective well-being andhealth (Fredrickson, 1998).Affective appreciation is, of course, not new—justthe research. People have affective reactions towardtasks, artifacts, and interfaces. These are causedby design features that operate either through theperceptual system (looking at) or from a sense of controlling (touching and activating) or from reﬂectionand experience. These reactions are difﬁcult if notimpossible to control; the limbic system in the brain isin operation whether we want it or not. The reactionsare in operation whenever we look at beautifulobjects, and they are particularly obvious when wetry “emotional matching,” such as buying clothes orselecting a birthday card for someone else.Affective evaluations provide a new and differentperspective in human factors engineering. It is not howto evaluate users—it is how the user evaluates. Theresearch on hedonic values and seductive interfaces is,in fact, a welcome contrast to safety and productivity,which have dominated human factors and ergonomics.Consequently, emotions and affect have receivedincreasing attention in recent years (Vel´asquez, 1998a).Approaches to emotions and affect have been studiedat many different levels, and several models have beenproposed for a variety of domains and environments.This raises many research issues: (1) how we canmeasure and analyze human reactions to affective andpleasurable design, and (2) how we can assess thecorresponding affective design features of products. Inthe end, we need to develop theories and predictivemodels for affective- and pleasure-based design.The purpose of this chapter is to summarize variousperspectives that have evolved in psychology, humanfactors, and neuroscience. We provide an overviewof the basic neurological functions; deﬁne terms suchas affect, emotions (the terms
are used interchangeably), and sentiments; reviewcouplings between the cognitive and affective systemsin processing information and evaluating decisionalternatives; summarize theories dealing with affectand design; and provide an overview of some of themost common measurement methodologies to measureaffect and pleasure in design. The main focus is ondesign: design activates and design evaluation fromthe user’s perspective as well as the designer’s.
1.1 Neurological Basis of Emotions
The neurological mechanisms are illustrated inFigure 1. In the brain there are three main areas:the thalamus, the limbic system, and the cortex. Thethalamus receives sensory input from the environment,which is then sent to the cortex for ﬁne analysis. Itis also sent to the limbic system, the main locationfor emotions, where the relevance of the informationis determined (LeDoux, 1995). The limbic systemcoordinates the physiological response and directs theattention (in cortex) and various cognitive functions.Primitive emotions (e.g., the startle effect) are handleddirectly through the thalamus–limbic pathway. In thiscase the physiological responses are mobilized, suchas for ﬁght and ﬂight. Reﬂective emotions, such aspondering over a beautiful painting, are handled bythe cortex. In this case there are not necessarilyany physiological responses—they are not requiredto deal with the situation. According to Kubovy