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digital holographic 3d display seminar

digital holographic 3d display seminar

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Published by Kishor R Krishnan
seminar final report
seminar final report

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Published by: Kishor R Krishnan on Aug 03, 2011
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07/15/2013

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DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC THREE DIMENSIONAL DISPLAYS1
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION
Three-dimensional video displays that can generate ghost like optical duplicates of 3-D objects and scenes have been depicted in science-fiction movies as futuristic means of visualmedia tools; such display devices always attracted public interest .One immediate question is whether such a display is possible; and a quick answer is“Yes, it is”.Noting that “seeing” is a purely optical interaction, and what we (or any other observer,including living organisms and machines) see is only due to the light that enters through our pupils,the design target for such a display is simple to state: if we can record the volume filling time-varying light field in a 3-D scene, with all its needed physical properties, and then regenerate thesame light field somehow at another place, maybe at another time, the observer will not be able todistinguish the original scene from its duplicate since the received light will be the same, andtherefore, any visual perception will also be the same.Then the natural question is whether we can record the light with all its relevant physical properties, and then regenerate it. The classical video camera is also a light recorder.However, not all necessary physical properties of light for the purpose outlined above can berecorded by a video camera; indeed, what is recorded by a video camera is just the focused intensity patterns (one for each basic color) over a planar sensing device. What is needed to be recordedinstead is indeed much more complicated: we also need the directional decomposition of incominglight as well. Briefly, and in an idealized sense, we can say that we need to record the light fielddistribution. The term light field distribution is usually associated with ray optics concepts, andtherefore, can be a valid optics model only in limited cases. If it can be recorded, we then need physical devices that can also regenerate (replay) the recorded light field. Prototypes for light fieldrecording and rendering devices are reported in the literature . Integral imaging gets close to a lightfield imaging device in the limit under some mathematical idealizations; however such limitingcases are not physically possible. A better optical model than the ray optics is the wave optics. The propagation of light in a volume is modeled as a scalar wave field; the optical information due to a
Dept. of ECE,CEMP
 
DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC THREE DIMENSIONAL DISPLAYS2
3-D scene is carried by this wave field. Therefore, if such a wave field can be recorded andreplayed, we achieve visual duplication of 3-D scenes; this is holography . Scalar wave model isusually satisfactory, and more accurate models of light are rarely needed, if any, for 3-D imagingand display purposes.Therefore, the term holography refers to recording and replaying optical wave fields.In a more restrictive usage, holography refers only to a specific form of such recording whereinterference of the desired wave field with a reference wave (sometimes self-referencing isemployed, as in in-line holography) is formed and recorded; we prefer the broader usage as statedabove. Indeed, the usage of the term may even be further broadened to include all kinds of physicalduplication of light, and therefore, may also cover integral imaging, in a sense .Here in this paper, our focus is on the display of holograms. We focus only ondynamic displays for video. Still holographic display technology has been well developed since1960s, whereas dynamic display technology is still in its infancy, and therefore, a current researchtopic. We further restrict our focus to pixelated display devices that can be driven digitally. Suchdisplays are usually called digital electroholographic displays since they are driven electronically.
Dept. of ECE,CEMP
 
DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC THREE DIMENSIONAL DISPLAYS3
CHAPTER 2THREE DIMENSIONAL DISPLAYS
A 3D display is any display device capable of conveying a stereoscopic perception of 3-D depth to the viewer. The basic requirement is to present offset images that are displayedseparately to the left and right eye. Both of these 2-D offset images are then combined in the brainto give the perception of 3-D depth. Although the term "3D" is ubiquitously used, it is important tonote that the presentation of dual 2-D images is distinctly different from displaying an image inthree full dimensions. The most notable difference is that the observer is lacking any freedom of head movement to increase information about the 3-dimensional objects being displayed.Holographic displays do not have this limitation, so the term "3D display" fits accurately for suchtechnology.Similar to how in sound reproduction it is not possible to recreate a full 3-dimensional sound field merely with two stereophonic speakers, it is likewise an overstatement of capability to refer to dual 2-D images as being "3D". The accurate term "stereoscopic" is morecumbersome than the common misnomer "3D", which has been entrenched after many decades of unquestioned misuse.The optical principles of multiview auto-stereoscopy have been known for over 60years.Practical displays with a high resolution have recently become available commercially.
2.1TYPES OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISPLAYS2.1.1 STERIOSCOPIC
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopic For 3-D imaging) refers to a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by presenting two offset images separatelyto the left and right eye of the viewer. Both of these 2-D offset images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3-Ddepth. Three strategies have been used to accomplish this: havethe viewer wear eyeglasses to combine separate images from two offset sources, have the viewer 
Dept. of ECE,CEMP

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