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Cannabis

Cannabis

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Published by Ioannis Georgilakis
The first part of a look at the Cannabis plant and its uses in light of Islamic history.
The first part of a look at the Cannabis plant and its uses in light of Islamic history.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Ioannis Georgilakis on Aug 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/13/2013

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C
ANNABIS
 
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cording to
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I
NTRODUCTION
 
Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
. Praise belongs to Allah; peace and blessings upon our Prophet Muhammad,his wives, his family, and all of his companions.This paper was prepared to counter the claim that cannabis, the plant that produces the oft-smokedproduct known commonly as
hashishah
[
 ششح
] in the East or
kif 
[
ف
] in the Maghrib, should be forbiddendue to its use as an intoxicant. The paper will show, beyond any possible interpreted doubt, that cannabiswas not only legal according to the earliest ages of Islam, but it was used to a great extent in Muslimsociety without harm.Regarding the product (
hashishah
,
kif 
), there will be a separate paper issued on the permissibility orprohibition thereof. The following will only go to prove the overwhelming proof that the plant should notbe forbidden, due to its firstly being a natural creation of Allah without explicit directive for prohibition inthe revelation and secondly being a great source of many materials and medicinal uses.With the exception of Murtada Zubaidi, every author mentioned below died before the year 500 on theHijri calendar. Not a single reference to any intoxicating effects of cannabis was mentioned in any of thesebooks. Author names, when they are first mentioned, are appended by the year of their deaths.To proceed:
L
ANGUAGE
 
Qinnab
[
ب
], translated as “cannabis”,
is a plant that produces a kind of fiber like flax.
1
 The poet said,
2
 
َسْ ئل ظ بز عابّ   ا ح ت  ودنبّ  
 A poor persistence of the tall, hunched bachelorpulling rope: and a fibrous rope of cannabis
 Abaq
[
قأ
] is another name for cannabis.
3
Ibn Darid (d. 321)
said, “
Qunnab
,
qinnab
: two well-known Arabicwords. They are the ropes that are also called
abaq
.
4
It was also mentioned by Jauhari
5
(d. 393) and Ibn
1
Al-
Muhit, Ibn ‘Abbad, 1/485
 
2
Al-Jim, Shaibani, 3/79
3
Al-
‘Ain, Khalil, 5/231
 
4
Al-Jamharah, Ibn Darid, 1/374
5
As-Sihah, Jauhari, 1/206
 
C
ANNABIS
 
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cording to
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Faris
6
(d. 395) that it is an original Arabic word. The latter added that, regarding its definition, it is well-known.
Maqat 
[
 ط
] is cannabis rope.
7
 
Khulub
[
بخ
] is a thin rope, tightly wound, made from a hard fiber likecannabis.
8
This is opposed to
 jummal 
[
ل
], which is a rope made from coarse cannabis.
9
 Allah said:
ونوخد اىتحجلايم طخا
 
And they shall not enter Jannah
َ
until the J-M-L
passes through the needle’s eye (7:40)
 The common recitation has the vowels of J-M-L as
 jamal 
, meaning “male camel”. It was also recited as
 jummal 
 
 –
according to Ibn Jinni (d. 392)
 –
 
by Ibn ‘Abbas, Sa’id
Bin
Jubair, Mujahid, Sha’bi, Abu ‘Ala
BinShakhir and Abu Raja.
10
 
Tha’alibi
(d. 429)
said, “If a bond is made of leather, it is calle
d
talaq
[
قط
]. If made of wood, it is called
miqtarah
[
ةرط
] and
 falaq
[
ق
]. If made of metal, it is called
nikl 
[
ل
] and
adham
[
مدأ
]. If made of rope orcannabis, it is called
ribq
[
قر
] and
safad 
[
دص
]
.”
11
 
There is an Arabic adage that states, “
I have no
darak 
[
كرد
]
in this matter”. Ibn Anbari
(d. 328)
said, “It
means: I have nothing to benefit me or
to repel harm”. So
darak 
is something that, according to theArabs, benefits and repels harm. Specifically, it is a rope made of cannabis fastened to two sides of abucket to protect the main rope from getting wet.
12
 It was narrated that Subaih heard Makhul (d. 115±) say,
when treating his animal’s hoof injury, “In theName of Allah: You are the Protector, the Healer, the Lasting.” Subaih said, “
He would then knot a newthread of cannabis or hair and fasten it to the animal
.”
13
 
Marar 
[
رار
] is another type of rope made from cannabis fiber.
14
Marari was a familial name, indicatingthat the patriarch was a maker or vendor of 
marar 
. A number of narrators belonged to this family.
 
Sahl Bin
Isma’il Marari narrated from Malik and ‘Abd Allah
Bin Muhammad the Qadi narratedfrom him.
15
 
6
Al-Mujmal, Ibn Faris, 1/734
7
Al-Fakhir, Mufaddal Bin Salamah, 1/275/420
8
Al-
‘Ain, Khalil, 4/270
 
9
Al-Jamharah, Ibn Darid, 1/491
10
Al-Muhtasib, Ibn Jinni, 1/249
11
Fiqh Al-
Lughah, Tha’alibi, 1/179
 
12
Az-Zahir, Ibn Anbari, 1/517/489
13
Al-Musannaf, Ibn Abi Shaibah, 6/109/29864
14
Al-
Ansab, Sam’ani, 12/169/3717
 
15
 
Tarikh Asbahan, Abu Nu’aim, 1/368/684
 
 
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Abu Hamid Ahmad Bin Muhammad Marari narrated from Ibn Ishaq and Kharkushi narrated fromhim.
16
 
 
Abu Ahmad Muhammad Bin
Ahmad Marari narrated from Suli and Abu ‘Uthman Buhairi narrated
from him.
17
 
 
‘Abd Allah
Bin
Abi Ja’far Marari narrated from Rabi’ and Ahmad Sa’
di narrated from him.
18
 
 
‘Auf 
Bin
Muhammad Marari narrated from ‘Abd Allah
Bin Muharrir and Suhail Jarudi narratedfrom him.
19
 
 
Abu Sharif Marari narrated from Abu Yusuf Qari.
20
 
S
HAR
I
I
MPLICATIONS
 
Shahdanij 
[
جادش
] is the seed of cannabis. The word is derived from the Persian
shah daneh
[
 ادَهش
],
meaning “king seed”.
21
Abu Yusuf (d. 182) mentioned
shahdanij 
in a list of crops that would obligatecharitable payment if its amount reached five
ausuq
[
قوأ
] (about 25,000 ounces).
22
 
Qadi Abu Ya’la
(d.458) agreed with him on this.
23
Muhammad Shaibani (d. 189) mentioned this as well, adding that cannabisby itself, not as a crop, goes untaxed.
24
Mawurdi (d. 450) held that there is no payment on
shahdanij 
,regardless of the amount.
25
 Ibn Hazm (d. 456) explained that the whip used for corporal punishment could be made using cannabis.
26
 
T
RADE
C
ROPS
,
 
C
LOTHING
,
 
P
APER
 
Ibn Hauqal (d. 367+) described
Tunis as having “cannabis, caraway, safflower, honey, ghee, grain, oil, and
abundant
livestock”, all of which was traded at Qairawa
n.
27
He also mentioned cannabis growing inSous.
28
Bashari (d. 380±)
mentioned cannabis as a major crop in Ma’lathaya (Duhok),
29
Rabanjan
30
andTabaristan,
31
and cannabis-
based clothing in ‘Askar.
32
 
16
Sharaf Al-Mustafa, Kharkushi, 2/473/138
17
Al-Fawaid, Buhairi, 1/41/40
18
At-Tafsir, Ibn Abi Hatim, 6/1991
19
Al-Musnad, Bazzar, 13/478/7281
20
At-Tarikh, Ibn Yunus, 2/259/692
21
Taj Al-
‘Arus, Murtada Zubaidi, 6/68
 
22
Al-Kharaj, Abu Yusuf, 1/63
23
Al-Ahkam As-Sultani
yah, Abu Ya’la, 1/122
 
24
As-Siyar, Shaibani, 1/281
25
Al-Hawi Al-Kabir, Mawurdi, 3/243
26
Al-Muhalla, Ibn Hazm, 12/85/2193
27
Surat Al-Ard, Ibn Hauqal, 1/74
28
Ibid. 1/91
29
Ahsan At-Taqasim, Bashari, 1/145

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fredtheblogger added this note
A very interesting post. Abu Hassan has dug out a large number of original sources which other researchers have missed. Will this paper be published elsewhere?
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