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LARA PEINADO, Federico - Poema de Gilgamesh: Un Viaje Fallido a La ad

LARA PEINADO, Federico - Poema de Gilgamesh: Un Viaje Fallido a La ad

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Ensayo donde se muestra el contexto socio-cultural al que pertenece la epopeya mesopotámica, presenta un breve resumen de la obra y explica la visión mesopotamica del cosmos, la inmortalidad y la muerte.
Ensayo donde se muestra el contexto socio-cultural al que pertenece la epopeya mesopotámica, presenta un breve resumen de la obra y explica la visión mesopotamica del cosmos, la inmortalidad y la muerte.

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Published by: Juan Manuel Pérez García on Aug 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial No-derivs

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11/06/2013

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 1
\CBGA MB EKNEAGBV@: RH YKAJB IANNKMC A NA KHGC_]ANKMAM
 
Ibmbrkfc Nara \bkhamc
Rhkybrvkmam Fcg|n}bhvb mb GamrkmKBn
\cbga mb Ekneagbv`
bv qkzá bn gáv }ç|kfc bjbg|nc nk}brarkc mb na gbh}ankmamvgbrc'afamka. |brvamkma mb na yankmbz mb v |rc|ka fkyknkzafköh. fchvbekma a ibrzamb mrc }raoajc { bh aemc fch}rav}b fch na |rkgk}kya bpkv}bhfka mb nav ebh}bv qb|conarch Gbvc|c}agkaRhc mb ncv }bgav fa|k}anbv. gahkibv}amc {a an fcgkbhzc mbn
\cbga
qb hcv ya acf|ar. vb fbh}ra bh mbvfrkokrhcv na erayk}afköh g}a mb vv mcv |brvchajbv gávrbnbyah}bv. Ekneagbv` { Bhdkm. bh h |rcfbvc mb rbfç|rcfc afbrfagkbh}c bh}rbfkyknkzafköh { oaroarkb 'ybhçah a vbr vv |rc}c}k|cv' { qb |ara }anbv |brvchajbv koa avkehkikfar ha agkv}am khmbv}rf}konbBn fk}amc |rcfbvc mb afbrfagkbh}c bh}rb agocv `ërcbv. |bribf}agbh}b mbnkhbamcvbh vv faraf}brbv. rboavö nc ikf}kfkc |ara vk}arvb bh bn fbh}rc gkvgc mb h ibhögbhc mb}ç|kfa vcnbra gbvc|c}ágkfa: bn fch}rav}b bh}rb „bv}b|a‗ (
bmkh
bh vgbrkc4
vbrg
bhafamkc+ { „}kbrra mb rbeamçc‗ (
eah
bh vgbrkc4
bqng
bh afamkc+ { f{a rbankmambykmbh}b vb gahkibv}aoa bh na fcmkfka mb ncv |boncv högamav fkrfhybfkhcv qb|brkömkfagbh}b vb vbh}çah kg|nvamcv a khyamkr nav fkmambv mb na nnahra anykangbvc|c}ágkfaBv}b |rcfbvc mb rbfç|rcfa erayk}afköh bh}rb „bv}b|a‗ { „}kbrra mb rbeamçc‗ bv}ágaekv}rangbh}b mbvfrk}c |cr bn ahöhkgc a}cr mbn
\cbga mb Ekneagbv`
. qkbh v|cmkvbñar a ncv mcv |rkhfk|anbv |brvchajbv. }k|kikfahmc ncv |cncv bp}rbgcv mbn fch}rav}bvcfkc'fn}ran qb ykyça Gbvc|c}agka bh vv mcv |rkgbrcv gknbhkcv mb `kv}crka \cr hnamc. Ekneagbv`. rb{ mb na erah gb}rö|cnk vgbrka mb Rrd (`c{ Uarda+. an vr mb Kraq.bp|chbh}b mb ha {a bv|nëhmkma fkyknkzafköh roaha \cr c}rc. Bhdkm. vbr mb na gávrma oaroarkb. bh f{a vbgonahza a|bhav aneúh qb c}rc ravec yaeagbh}b `gahcnceraoa aincrar bh}rb vv fcg|chbh}bv ahkganbvfcvKKNcv `kv}crkamcrbv `ah vkehkikfamc qb na nz mb na fkyknkzafköh fcgbhzö a orknnar`ará a|rcpkgamagbh}b hcv vbkv gknbhkcv. }rav ha narea hcf`b mb vanyajkvgc|anbcnç}kfc { mb ha |ncgkza fnarkmam mb vfbvkycv anfahfbv hbcnç}kfcv [ bvcv gkvgcv`kv}crkamcrbv `ah fchybhkmc. oaváhmcvb bh |rboav arqbcnöekfav. qb aqbnna nzfkyknkzamcra vb ykc |cr |rkgbra ybz bh bn \röpkgc Crkbh}b. bh \anbv}kha. Aha}cnka { nannahra gbvc|c}ágkfa. rbeama bv}a |cr ncv rçcv Ëira}bv { ]kerkv. bh f{a nnahra vbnbyah}aoa na fkmam mb Rrd. fha mb Ekneagbv`. mb na fan bra rb{ \brvchajb qb g{|rch}c. a fava mb v iaga. vbrça vjb}c mb h fkfnc mb |cbgav vgbrkcv qbfrkv}ankzarçah |cr bvfrk}c bh bn gaehc
\cbga
(vaea c b|c|b{a |ara c}rcv+ mb v hcgorbNa ikera mb aqbn rb{ nnbeö a vbr fchcfkma bh }cmc bn ágok}c |röpkgc'crkbh}anmrah}b favk }rbv gknbhkcv. { v bfc |mc khfnvc vbekrvb bh anehcv a}crbv erkbecv {na}khcv { bh hc |cfcv b|kvcmkcv icndnörkfcv gbmkbyanbv mb mkibrbh}bv |açvbv brc|bcvFcgc hc |cmça vbr gbhcv. vk bn
\cbga mb Ekneagbv`
ib ir}c mb na |rkgbrafkyknkzafköh mb na @gahkmam. vk `hmça vv raçfbv bh bn |brkcmc qb Y Ecrmch F`knmbnnagö mb na „rbycnfköh roaha‗. bh obha nöekfa bv}a }bgá}kfa 'bn hafkgkbh}c { aeb mbn
 
 ?
bv|nbhmcr mb Rrd. na fkmam gáv erahmb mbn ghmc bh bn }brfbr gknbhkc |rbfrkv}kahc'`oc mb bv}ar ag|nkagbh}b fch}bhkma bh ënRrd bv |ara bn ahöhkgc a}cr mbn
\cbga
h fbh}rc onnkfkcvc { fc}kmkahc. g{mkibrbh}b mbn rbv}c mbn ghmc bh}chfbv fchcfkmc Aqbnna fkmam bra ha rbankmamfchfrb}a. ibra mb na fan na kgaekhafköh |cmça ycnfarvb vkh nçgk}bv. |bv mboçaambh}rarvb bh h hkybrvc mbvfchcfkmc \cr bvc bn |cb}a hcv eça a }rayëv mb nav ?ahf`avfanzamav { erahmbv |nazav‗ mb Rrd. |cr vv |anafkcv { }bg|ncv. |cr vv `br}cv [ hcvkhyk}a. }ah}c an |rkhfk|kc fcgc an ikhan mb v }bp}c. a avfbhmbr a nc gáv an}c mb vvgrannav { mb v }crrb bvfanchama c
 zkqqrra}
Mbvmb annç. |cmbgcv |rbvbhfkar bn|ahcraga mbn ghmc roahc bhfbrramc bh}rb vv grannav. `av}a vv nçgk}bv. ncv fag|cvnaoramcv { bn rçc. bn Ëira}bv. qb vb mbvnkza |brbzcvagbh}b `afka bn garBn k}khbrarkc roahc a rbfcrrbr vb |bona { ahkga fch na |rbvbhfka { nav ycfbv mbncv ar}bvahcv. mb nav gjbrbv. mb ncv jöybhbv ebrrbrcv. mb ncv ahfkahcv fchvbjbrcv. mbncv vgkvcv bvfnaycv Ibra mb nav grannav. }rav na irch}bra fag|bvkha. fch vv |av}crbv{ aerkfn}crbv. vb aorb bn ahf`c ghmc ajbhc. `cv}kn. oároarc b kehcramc. bh ha vfbvköhfaö}kfa mb mbvkbr}cv { gch}añav. bh mchmb ykybh gchv}rcv { vbgkmkcvbv. na }kbrrakrrbmbh}a mchmb vönc nav mkykhkmambv |bmbh kg|brar Gáv anná. }cmayça. bh ha nbjahçankhmbra fch na Rn}ra}goa bv}á bn Cfëahc. bv}c bv. nav „Aeav mb na Gbr}b‗. ah}kfk|c mbnErah Aokvgc (
 Aoz
+ vcorb bn qb inc}a 'vbeúh na fchfb|fköh vgbrka mbn fcvgcv' bnRhkybrvcKKKBn ycfaonc
fkyknkzafköh
bv h fchfb|}c. fcgc vb vaob. mb g{ fcg|nbjcfch}bhkmc vbgáh}kfc. mbn qb vb `ah bibf}amc `av}a h }c}an mb 191 mbikhkfkchbv. mbafbrmc fch nc qb vcfköncecv. ah}rc|öncecv { b}höeraicv bh}kbhmbh ]agokëh vb vaobqb na fkyknkzafköh hc vrekö mb gcmc vúok}c mbvmb na ykma vanyajb { na oaroarkb. vkhc qbbycnfkchö eramangbh}b. |ar}kbhmc mb na ykma gkvga. mb ncv fchcfkgkbh}cv |ráf}kfcvmb nav |rkgk}kyav fcghkmambv bv}aonbv Bva bycnfköh vrekö bh bn \röpkgc Crkbh}bah}kec. ag|nka árba ebceráikfa bh na fan na bfchcgça aerc|bfarka. fcgokhama fchc}rcv iaf}crbv `gahcv mb çhmcnb bv|krk}an { vcfkan. |cvkoknk}ö na gáv ah}keafkyknkzafköh qb fchcfbgcv. { qb qbma rbinbjama bh gf`cv |avajbv mbn
\cbga mbEkneagbv`
. }bp}c 'fcgc vb ybrá nbec' mb g{ yarkamav kh}br|rb}afkchbv]agokëh bh Gbvc|c}agka vrekö bn gáv }ë}rkfc vo|rcmf}c mb na fkyknkzafköh 'c.vk vb qkbrb. ha mb vv gahkibv}afkchbv hbea}kyav' na ebrra. af}kykmam qb bh vv gávyarkamav icrgav mb affköh qbmö rbfcekma bh hgbrcvcv }bp}cv rbnkekcvcv. nçrkfcv {ë|kfcv \cr v|bv}c. bh bn
\cbga
`a{ fnarav anvkchbv a bv}b |ar}kfnarMama na }bgá}kfa mb bv}av Jcrhamav { na kg|cvkoknkmam a`cra mb ahankzar }cmcfah}c a fkyknkzafköh { oaroarkb a|arbfb bh bn
\cbga
qb hcv ya a cf|ar. `bgcvmbmkfamc hbv}ra a}bhfköh a ahankzar na vbrkb mb ykajbv qb rbankzö Ekneagbv` { qbqbmah rbfcekmcv a nc narec mb vv mcfb ]aonknnav. qb bv bn garfc mb v bp}bhvköhnk}brarkaFcgc |rbvbh}afköh mbn }bp}c mbfkr qb }cmc ën ekra bh }crhc a na ikera mbnkhmkfamc Ekneagbv`. |brvchajb vgbrkc. qb ykykö `afka bn ?92< ah}bv mb Frkv}c. vkbhmcbn qkh}c rb{ mb na fkmam mb Rrd. vbeúh |h}ankza na
 Nkv}a rban vgbrka
(UO ===+.mcfgbh}c ihmagbh}an |ara bn bv}mkc mb nav |rkgbrav fkmambv'bv}amc vgbrkav]an fkmam ib h kg|cr}ah}b fbh}rc rbnkekcvc. mbmkfamc an |amrb mb ncv mkcvbv.Ah. { a v `kja na mkcva Khahha. fchybr}kma vkencv mbv|ëv |cr ncv vbgk}av bh Kv`}ar.mkykhkmambv agoav qb }kbhbh qb ybr fch bn mbvarrcnnc mbn
\cbga
. f{c }bp}c ibag|nkagbh}b fchcfkmc bh }kbg|cv ah}kecv. vkbhmc bh |anaorav mb E V Dkrd. bn gáv
 
 6
iagknkar { bn gáv bvfr|ncvagbh}b fchvbryamc mb }cmav nav corav nk}brarkavgbvc|c}ágkfav. ajbhav a na }ramkfköh rk}anMb kean gcmc. c}rc kg|cr}ah}b bv}mkcvc. O Nahmvobrebr vbñanö qb fch bn
\cbga
 
mb Ekneagbv`
ncv gbvc|c}ágkfcv frbarch gf`c ah}bv qb ncv erkbecv. fch vb|c|b{a hafkchan na
 Knçama
. ha fcg|cvkfköh |cë}kfa fcgc hkheúh c}rc |bonc ah}kec]ag|cfc ncv bek|fkcv hk ncv `k}k}av |bmbh bp`kokr ha b|c|b{a |arahechaonb a na mbEkneagbv`KY@kv}örkfagbh}b. nav harrafkchbv vcorb Ekneagbv` fkrfnarch |cr yça cran g{|cfc mbv|ëv mb v gbr}b. aúh fahmc `okbrch mb |avar yarkcv vkencv ah}bv mb vbrikjamav |cr bvfrk}c Vb `a |cmkmc akvnar `av}a na ibf`a
fkhfc harrafkchbv
vgbrkav c|cbgav gbhcrbv vcorb }an |brvchajb. harrafkchbv qb nbec. bh na ë|cfa |anbcoaoknöhkfamarçah |avc a h }bp}c hk}arkc. g{ okbh ar}kfnamc Vkencv mbv|ëv. {a bh ë|cfafavvk}a. bv}c bv. bh}rb ncv vkencv PYK { PKK ah}bv mb Frkv}c. vb marçah ncv rb}cqbv favkmbikhk}kycv 'rbfcekmcv bh na ybrvköh mbn |cb}a Vkh'nbqk'hkhhk'. `av}a qb ncv bvfrkoavavkrkcv mbn }kbg|c mbn rb{ Avvroahk|an. bh bn vkenc YKK }agokëh ah}bv mb Frkv}c. ikjarçahmb gcmc fahöhkfc bn }bp}c {a. mb `bf`c. mkihmkmc |cr bvfrk}c |cr }cmc bn ágok}c mbnFbrfahc Crkbh}bMb ncv fkhfc |cbgav crkekhanbv vgbrkcv. mcv hc }ykbrch rb|brfvköh aneha bhna }bgá}kfa aregbh}an mbn mbikhk}kyc
\cbga
 Ibrch ncv b|kvcmkcv mb
Ekneagbv` {
 
 Aeeamb Dkv`
{ bn mb na
 Gbr}b mb Ekneagbv`
 Rh }brfbr }bp}c vgbrkc.
Ekneagbv`
{
bn \açvmb na Ykma
. vç }yc rbinbjc mkrbf}c bh bn
\cbga
. ahqb fch vbhvkonbv gcmkikfafkchbv.fchybr}kmc bh bn b|kvcmkc mbn „Ocvqb mb ncv Fbmrcv‗. b|kvcmkc bh bn qb anehcvbp|br}cv `ah ykv}c bn bhirbh}agkbh}c bh}rb aerkfn}crbv { |av}crbv c okbh bh}rb nc oároarc{ nc fkyknkzamc C}rc |cbga. }k}namc |cr V H Dragbr.
Ekneagbv` { bn
 
]crc Fbnbv}b
. mbnqb vönc hcv `ah nnbeamc iraegbh}cv. ib afb|}amc bh na rbfbhvköh ún}kga. mbhcgkhama„hkhkyk}a‗. fch g{ |cfcv rb}cqbv Bn fchcfkmc fcgc
Ekneagbv`. Bhdkm { bn Ghmc
 
 Khibrkcr 
ib fc|kamc |ráf}kfagbh}b bh v }c}ankmam. ahqb vb v|rkgkö v kh}rcmffköhfcvgceöhkfa. { vb añamkö an ikhan mbn rbna}c. ah fahmc v aregbh}c bra khfcg|a}konbfch nc harramc bh bn fchjh}c mbn |cbga hk}arkcAvkgkvgc. bn
\cbga
ib bhrkqbfkmc |cr |ar}b mb Vkh'nbqb'hkhk. fch c}rakg|cr}ah}b harrafköh mbn fkfnc vgbrkc. bh na qb bn |a|bn fbh}ran nc cf|aoa bn `ërcbZkvmra. fchcfkmc }agokëh fcgc R}aha|kv`}kg. fnarc |rc}c}k|c mbn Hcë oçonkfc. { qbfchv}k}ça bn hmc harra}kyc mb h Mknykc hkybrvan. qb arravö fkmambv { |brvchav.}bgá}kfa fchcfkma {a fch ah}brkcrkmam erafkav an
\cbga mb A}rag'd`avkv
 Bn bvfrkoaVkh'nbqb'hkhk
 .
}rav ama|}ar na harrafköh { fchbf}ar a Ekneagbv` fch aqbn |brvchajbiaoncvc. nc khfn{ö bh bn mbvarrcnnc aregbh}an Bn rbna}c mbn Mknykc. |rcycfamc |crncv mkcvbv. ikhankza fch na mbfkvköh. qb `aoçah vcnkfk}amc ncv mkcvbv Bhdk { Bhnkn mbbnbyar an vanyamc mb nav aeav { a v bv|cva an rahec mb mkcvbvC}rc |rconbga nareagbh}b mboa}kmc. bv bn mb na `kv}crkfkmam mb Ekneagbv` Bvbykmbh}b qb bh bn
\cbga
. { a nc narec mb vv mcfb }aonknnav mb bp}bhvköh. vb |brikna a }an|brvchajb fcgc h `ërcb gç}kfc. mb bp}racrmkharka an}ra içvkfa '2½9< gb}rcv mb an}ra(bn mconb mbn oçonkfc Ecnka}. |ara `afbrhcv ha kmba+'. fcg|bv}c bh vv mcv }brfbrav|ar}bv mb bvbhfka mkykha. { `aonahmc { gcykëhmcvb bh}rb ncv mkcvbv. fcgc hc gáv mbbnncv Mb `bf`c. |ara h `kv}crkamcr `k|brfrç}kfc. hc bpkv}bh oavbv fkbh}çikfav |aravcv}bhbr na `kv}crkfkmam mb Ekneagbv` Vkh bgoarec. hc |cfcv bv|bfkankv}av. bh}rb bnncvUknirbm Nagobr} { \acnc Pbnna. afb|}ah na bpkv}bhfka `gaha mb aqbn |brvchajb. mamana fah}kmam mb ma}cv qb vb }kbhbh vcorb ën. |mkëhmcvb fk}ar na
 Nkv}a rban vgbrka
.

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