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Turkish Foreign Policy in an Age of Uncertainty

Turkish Foreign Policy in an Age of Uncertainty

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Published by Salim Ullah

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Published by: Salim Ullah on Aug 04, 2011
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01/02/2013

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45
Chapter Three
TURKEY AND EUROPE
Diplomatically, Turkey has been part of the European state systemsince the 19th century when the Ottoman empire was included in theConcert of Europe. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1856, Europe’sgreat powers decided that the territorial integrity of the Ottomanempire was essential for European stability. Indeed, for much of thelast half of the 19th century, European diplomacy was dominated by the “Eastern Question”—that is, how to manage the decline of theOttoman empire, which by the mid-1800s had become, in CzarNicholas I’s
 
famous phrase, “the sick man of Europe.” Yet although the Ottoman empire was part of the European statesystem, it was never regarded as an equal member of it. At its root,the Concert of Europe was an association of Christian, European,and “civilized” states governed by certain values and norms. MostEuropean statesmen felt that the Ottoman empire did not sharethese values and norms. As Iver Neumann has noted, “Although ‘theTurk’ was part of the system of interstate relations, the topic of cul-ture denied it equal status within the community of Europe.”
1
Turkey’s relations with Europe changed with the demise of the Ot-toman empire. As the Ottoman empire lost its military superiority and fell behind European states in technological development, theOttoman elite began to look to Europe as a model and began to im-port European ideas, lifestyles, and ways of thinking. In the words of one Turkish scholar, Europe became “a mirror through which the Ot-______________
1See Iver B. Neumann,
Uses of the Other: The “East” in European Identity Formation
,Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, p. 59.
 
46Turkish Foreign Policy in an Age of Uncertaint
toman elite perceived its own weaknesses, differences and traits.”
2
The “Europeanization” process thus became critical in defining Turkey’s development and evolution.This process of modernization and Europeanization was acceleratedin the early 20th century, especially after the formation of the TurkishRepublic by Kemal Atatürk in 1923. Atatürk sought to modernizeTurkey by eliminating almost all aspects of the Ottoman system, which he regarded as the main reason for Turkey’s cultural and tech-nological backwardness. Beginning with the abolition of the Sul-tanate in 1923, and the Caliphate a year later, Atatürk introduced aseries of reforms designed to transform Turkey into a modern, secu-lar European state.
3
This process of gradual Europeanization was given new impetus after World War II by Turkey’s entry into NATO. Turkey was regarded asan important bulwark against the expansion of Soviet power and acritical link in the Western defense system. In 1963, Turkey con-cluded an Association Agreement (the Ankara Agreement) with theEuropean Community (EC), which foresaw the possibility of eventualmembership (Article 28) once the conditions for membership hadbeen met. At the same time, there has always been—and continues to be—asense among many Europeans that Turkey is not really “European.”For centuries, “the Turk” was the significant “Other” against whichEurope defined its identity.
4
This perception of Turks as “other” inEurope is deeply embedded in Europeans’ collective memory andcolors European views of Turkey today. Because of its different cul-tural and religious traditions, Turkey is seen as not quite really “European.” As one former European Union official has put it,“Turkey has never been fully considered a European country, but______________
2Meltem Müftüler-Bac, “Through the Looking Glass: Turkey in Europe,”
TurkishStudies 
, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 2000, p. 28.3For a detailed discussion, see Bernard Lewis,
The Emergence of Modern Turkey 
,London: Oxford University Press, 1961, especially pp. 234–293.4For a detailed exploration of this theme, see Neumann,
Uses of the Other 
, ChapterTwo.
 
Turkey and Europe47
neither is it considered fully Asian. It is at the crossroads betweentwo continents, two cultures and two destinies.”
5
This ambiguity about Turkey’s place in Europe—its “European-ness”—has become more acute since the end of the Cold War. Aslong as the Soviet Union was perceived as a major threat, strategicconsiderations tended to dominate Turkey’s relationship to Europe. Although many Europeans had doubts about whether Turkey couldever become a member of the European Community—as the EU wasthen called—these doubts took a backseat to the overriding strategicneed to bind Turkey close to the West.The end of the Cold War, however, has raised new doubts aboutTurkey’s place in Europe and created new difficulties in Ankara’s re-lations with Europe. With the demise of the Soviet Union, military strategic considerations have become less important in Europe’sapproach to Turkey, whereas economic, political, and cultural fac-tors have increased in importance. Today Europe is not primarily concerned about deterring a Soviet (or Russian) threat but aboutcreating a cohesive political and economic union and forging an ef-fective common European foreign and defense policy. This shift inpriorities has highlighted Turkey’s “distinctiveness” and raised new questions about where Turkey fits into the “new Europe.”
TURKEY AND EC ENLARGEMENT
Turkey’s problems with Europe—and the European Union in par-ticular—have been accentuated by the EC’s (and later the EU’s)changing approach to enlargement.
6
The Association Agreements which the EC signed with Greece in 1961 and Turkey in 1963 pro-vided important trade benefits and were seen as possible stepping stones to full membership if and when the two countries fulfilled theconcrete conditions for membership.______________
5See Eberhard Rhein, “Europe and the Greater Middle East,” in Robert D. Blackwilland Michael Stürmer, eds.,
 Allies Divided: Transatlantic Policies for the Greater Middle East 
, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997, p. 47.6For good discussion, see Sevilay Elgün Kahraman, “Rethinking Turkey-EuropeanUnion Relations in Light of Enlargement,”
Turkish Studies 
, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 2000,pp. 1–20.

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