connection between the Garveyist movement in the 1920’s and South African activists.
Interestingly it has no difficulty in incorporating both the socialist and capitalist (i.e. leftand right) orientations in one text. Johanningsmeier is clear about the interaction betweenthe African Diaspora and South Africa by way of Garveyism and Pan Africanism and byway of African-American marxists and black South African marxists. The point here isthat Pan-Africanism embraces both the left and right options.
Prof Kwesi Prah in his paper entitled ‘Capacity of the Southern African states in
developing and implementing policies promotive of African unity through Pan-
Africanism’ delivered in Durban in October 2003, tells us about the work of the Pan
-Africanist Henry Sylvester Williams in Cape Town around 1903. P rah refers to figuressuch as Sol Plaatje, Selope Thema and Walter Sis
ulu’s early politicization by way of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) founded in Jamaicain 1911.’The African World‘ newspaper of the African National Congress (ANC) in 1925 published Garvey’s ‘African Fundamentalism’ in an Af
he chapter contribution of Tony Emmett entitled ‘Popular Resistance in Namibia 1920
1925’, in the book ‘Resistance and ideology in the settler societies’edited by Tom Lodge,
published in the Southern African Studies series in Johannesburg in 1986, is theauthorative source on Garveyism in Namibia. It teaches us that the UNIA Branch inLuderitz was launched in 1921. In that year the branch consisted of 31 members. Namessuch as Frtz Headley and John De Clue come down to us from the research of Emmett.By January 1922 a UNIA branch existed in Windhoek. Emmett explains how the ideascoming from the UNIA brought together the various ethnic groups in the area of SouthWest Africa to oppose German imperialism. Prior to the influence of Garvey, the groupssort individually to confront foreign influence. The birth of Namibian nationalism findsits root in Garveyism.Prah says in his above-
mentioned paper,‘the Ideal of African unity has been a consistent
and ever present feature in African nationalist through since the end of the 19
century’.In the unipolar world today, moving to a multi
-polar world tomorrow, thepolitics of unity will be the dominant discourse globally. This discourse for us will begrounded in the soil of African nationalism. However whereas the nationalism whichdecolonised east Africa was in pursuit of the recognition of the states created by theBerlin Conference, none of these states proved viable. The future objective therefore isthe unity of the African Nation, a larger objective than the nation state project.The seed of Pan-Africanism originated in Africa. It then crossed the Atlantic to theCaribbean, North and South America, where it germinated in the experience of Africansunder slavery. In the western Diaspora the experience was refined into a modernphilosophical ideal, which came back to Africa by way of a set of ideas circulated atvenues such as the 5
Pan-African Congress of 1945,the 6
Pan-African Congress held inDar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania in 1974, the 7
Pan-African Congress held in Kampala,Ugandaand via the Pan-African Congress series convened by WEB Du Bois. The 8th Pan-African Congress will be convened by Ibbo Mandaza in Zimbabwe.