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New Method for CODATA Adjustment

New Method for CODATA Adjustment

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Published by Aurel Millea

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Published by: Aurel Millea on Aug 04, 2011
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 A new approach for improving the estimation of fundamental physical constants (FPC) values
Béla Szakáts,* Aurel Millea**
* AIDRom, Tel. +4021 320 98 70, E-mail: office@aidrom.eunet.ro** Romanian Measurement Society, Tel. +4021 666 32 40, Fax +4021 666 47 00 E-mail: amillea@upcmail.ro
Abstract.
 
 A new approach to the FPC adjustment is presented, based on the linearisation of theobservational equations by taking the logarithm of the quantities involved. In order to evaluate themerit of the proposed method, called the “weighted logarithmic adjustment” (WLA), a simulation was performed by applying it to the input data of the 1986 CODATA adjustment. The results obtained  show a significant reduction of the uncertainties of the resulting output values.
1. Introduction
The fundamental physical constants (FPC) appear as invariant quantities throughout all of theformulations of the basic theories of physics and their applications.They are of such importance ingeneral that their numerical values must be known to an accuracy as high as possible. A particular interest for attaining the highest possible accuracy in the estimation of the FPC values is in metrology,since the present-day approach in defining the SI units is essentially based on these constants.Therefore, much effort has been made in order to improve the degree of knowledge of the numericalvalues of the most important FPCs. In 1969 a specialized working group was created, the Committeeon Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), which offered in 1973 a first set of accurate valuesfor a number of physical and chemical constants [1]. It was followed in 1986 by the publication of theresults of a so-called “adjustment” of the FPCs [2], using a least-squares procedure for determining thevalues of more than one hundred constants starting from the best existing experimental data,associated with their estimated uncertainties. The most recent similar collection of values was produced in 1998, by the same scientific forum [3].The basic idea behind the determination of the best values of the FPCs by “adjustment” is to start fromcertain “input” quantities and to modify them taking account of the existing functional relations between them, arriving at an optimal set of “output” quantities. Since the number of these equations ishigher than that of the quantities involved, they can only approximately be met. The problem is to findthe set of output quantities so that the degree of non-conformance to the equations becomes minimal.The practical way to do this is to divide the data into two groups: auxiliary constants (“exact” values, by convention) and stochastic input data, which may be expressed in terms of five quantities:
 K 
Ω
, theconstant relating the SI ohm
Ω 
to the unit of resistance
Ω 
85BI 
as maintained by BIPM;
 K 
V
, the constantrelating the SI volt V to the unit of voltage
76BI 
as maintained by BIPM;
α 
-1
,
the inverse fine-structure constant;;
220
, the lattice spacing of a perfect cristal of pure silicon at 22,5
°
C in vacuum;
 μ 
μ
/
 μ 
 p
, the ratio of the magnetic moment of the muon to that of the proton. Through a least-squaresadjustment the “best” values of these five quantities are obtained as output quantities.
 
In the three FPC adjustments made by the CODATA group a kind of classical least-squares algorithmwas used, worked out and adapted by the authors. The adjusted values of the five unknown quantitiesand hence all the other values that were derived from them – using the auxiliary constants as well – have finally been based on this least-squares adjustment. In this way, a consistent set of values wasobtained for the FPCs, together with the associated full covariance matrix (since the uncertainties of many of these constants are correlated, the full covariance matrix is necessary for estimating theuncertainties of quantities derived from them). Nevertheless, some criticism has been addressed the 1973 and 1986 adjustments, the most important points being (a) the assumption of a gaussian distribution and (b) the use of fractional degrees of freedom.In this paper a new approach to the FPC adjustment is presented, based on the linearisation of theobservational equations by taking the logarithm of the quantities involved. As a consequence, thehypothesis of gaussian distribution becomes more plausible. Also, consequently applying themaximum likelihood principle avoids the use of fractional degrees of freedom. In order to evaluate themerit of the proposed method, called the “weighted logarithmic adjustment” (WLA), a simulation was performed by applying it to the input data of the 1986 CODATA adjustment. The results obtainedshow a significant reduction of the uncertainties of the resulting output values, which is another advantage of the new approach.
2. The observational equations
In the 1986 adjustment the following system of 12 “observational” equations was used:
Ω=Ω
Ω
 K 
 BI 
85
 
 A K  K  A
 BI 
185
Ω
=
 
 K 
 BI 
=
76
 
Ω
=
 K  K  F 
 RcE  BI 
em pm p
22485
α 
 
12485'
'
)(
Ω
=
 K lo
 R E c BI  p
 B p
α γ  
μ  μ 
 
Ω
=
 K  K hi
 R E c BI  p
 B p
22485'
'
)(
α γ  
μ  μ 
(1)
)()(
220220
SiSi
=
 
)()(
3220282
220
Si K Si
 R E cm
em pm p
=
α 
 μ 
 
1102185
)(
Ω
=
 K c R
 BI  H 
α  μ 
 
α α 
=
 
 p p
μ  μ  μ  μ 
 μ  μ 
=
 
 
 pe B p
mmMhfs
qc R
 μ  μ  μ  μ 
 μ  μ 
α ν 
23316
)1(
+=
 
where
q
= 1,00095761(14)
 
(here and throughout this paper the uncertainty expressed as standard deviation is written in parantheses at the end of the numerical value) and:
85
 BI 
Ω
is the ohm maintained by BIPM (in 1985),
Ω
is the SI ohm, and similarly
 A
and
are the corresponding quantities for the amper and the volt(for the volt the year is 1976);
 F 
the farad;
 p
the molar mass of the proton;
c
the speed of light invacuum;
 E 
by definition 483594 GHz/VBI76;
 R
 
the Rydberg constant;
m
 p
/
m
e
the proton / electronmass ratio;
α 
fine-structure constant;
γ  
 p
the proton gyromagnetic ratio;
 μ 
 p
/
 μ 
B
the proton magneticmoment measured in Bohr magneton;
m
the silicon molar volume;
 μ 
0
the magnetic constant;
ν 
Mhfs
themuon fine-structure frequency;
m
e
/
m
μ
 
the electron / muon mass ratio.
3. The WLA method
With the auxiliary constants values given in Table 1, the following five quantities are defined:(2)Table 1
Symbol Value Unit Uncertainty (ppm)
 p
1,007276470(12) 10
-3
kg/mol 0,01191
c
299792458 m/s 0
 R
 10973731,534(13) m
-1
0,00118
m
 p
/
m
e
1836,152701(37) 0,02015
 μ 
 p
/
 μ 
B
0,001521032202(15) 0,00986
 μ 
 p
’/
 μ 
B
 0,001520993129(17) 0,01118
 μ 
0
4
π
x 10
-7
 NA
-2
01+
m
e
/
m
μ
 1,00483633218(71) 0,00071
 E 
483594,0 GHz/V
BI76
0
q
1,00095761(14) 0,14A new set of logarithmic variables
 y
1
-
 y
12
is introduced, defined as follows:
 y
1
= ln (
Ω
BI85
/
Ω
)
 y
2
= ln (
 A
BI85
/
 A
)
 y
3
= ln (
BI76
/
)
 y
4
= ln (
 F 
BI85
/
 I 
1
)
 y
5
= ln (
γ  
 p
(lo)
BI85
/
 I 
2
)
 y
6
= ln (
γ  
 p
(hi)
BI85
/
 I 
2
)(3)
 y
7
= ln (
220
(Si)
)
 y
8
= ln (V
m
(Si)
/
 I 
3
)
 y
9
= ln ((
 R
H
)
BI85
/
 I 
4
 
 y
10
= ln
α 
 
 y
11
= ln (
 μ 
μ
/
 μ 
 p
)
 y
12
= ln (
ν 
Mhfs
/
 I 
5
)as well as the logarithmic unknowns:
 p
1
= ln
 K 
Ω
,
 p
2
= ln
 K 
V
,
 p
3
= ln
α 
,
 p
4
= ln (
220
(Si)
),
 p
5
= ln (
 μ 
μ
/
 μ 
 p
). (4)In this way, the system of observational equations (1) becomes a linear system of 12 equations with 5unknowns. The 12 rows and 5 columns matrix of this over-determined system is:
14
 I 
em pm p
 RcE 
=
24
'
 I 
 R E c
 B p
=
 μ  μ 
382
220
 I 
 R E c
em pm p
=
 μ 
53316
)1(
 I qc R
mm
e B p
=+
 μ 
 μ  μ 
4021
 I c
=
 μ 

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