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Week 7

Week 7

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Published by Rtoes

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Rtoes on Aug 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Linguistics for Teachers and Writers
TESC • E&W Studies
Study guide for week 7:
The goals for this week are to: 1) become familiar with the distinction betweensemantics and pragmatics; 2) distinguish between lexical and combinatorialsemantics; 3) understand the role that meaning relations like entailment,paraphrase, contradiction, antonymy, and synonymy play in determiningsemantic content; 4) learn how semantics is related to objects in the worldthrough model-theoretic semantics.
Language Files: Chapter 7Pinker: none.
Exercises from the text:
Language Files: File
Additional exercises:
1. For each group of words given below, state what semantic feature or featuresare shared by the (a) words and the (b) words, and what semantic feature or features distinguish between the classes of (a) and (b) words.Example: a. widow, mother, sister, aunt, seamstressb. widower, father, brother, uncle, tailor Features of (a) and (b): humanFeatures of (a): femaleFeatures of (b): maleA. a. bachelor, man, son, paperboy, pope, chief b. bull, rooster, drake, ramB. a. table, stone, pencil, cup, house, ship, car b. milk, alcohol, rice, soup, mudC. a. book, temple, mountain, road, tractor b. idea, love, charity, sincerity, bravery, fear D. a. pine, elm, ash, weeping, willow, sycamoreb. rose, dandelion, aster, tulip, daisyE. a. book, letter, encyclopedia, novel, notebook, dictionaryb. typewriter, pencil, ballpoint, crayon, quill, charcoal, chalkF. a. walk, run, skip, jump, hop, swimb. fly, skate, ski, ride, cycle, canoe, hang-glideG. a. ask, tell, say, talk, converse
b. shout, whisper, mutter, drawl, holler H. a. alive, asleep, dead, married, pregnantb. tall, smart, interesting, bad, tiredI. a. alleged, counterfeit, false, putative, accusedb. red, large, cheerful, pretty, stupid2. As noted in File 7.3, there are several kinds of antonymy. Indicate whichamong the following are complementary pairs (exact opposites), which aregradable (scalar) pairs, and which are relational opposites.
good badexpensive cheapparent offspringbeautiful uglyfalse truelessor lesseepass failhot coldlegal illegallarger smaller poor richfast slowasleep awakehusband wiferude polite3. Consider the definitions below.a. joy,
Intense and especially ecstatic or exultant
, [
:Enjoying, showing, or marked by pleasure, satisfaction, or 
.Use a dictionary to find three more examples of words that are defined circularly.A. a. ____________________________________________ b. ____________________________________________ B. a. ____________________________________________ b. ____________________________________________ C. a. ____________________________________________ b. ____________________________________________ 
What implications do you see given the degree of circularity found in language?4. What is ambiguity on the “mental image” theory of meaning? How might thisbe a problem for the theory? Discuss.5. Indicate the truth values (true = T, false = F) of the following sentences:A. a. Either it is raining here or it is not raining here. ___ b. If John is sick and Mary is sick, then John is sick. ___ c. It is raining here hand it is not raining here. ___ d. If John is sick and Mary is sick, then Mary is not sick. ___ B. a. All people that are sick are people. ___ b. If every person is sick, then it is not true that no person is sick. ___ c. Some people that are sick are not people. ___ d. Every person is sick, but some person is not sick. ___ C. a. If John is a bachelor, then John is unmarried. ___ b. If John broke the vase, then the vase broke. ___ c. if the car is red, then it has a color. ___ d. John is a bachelor, but he is unmarried. ___ e. John broke the vase, but it isn’t broken. ___ f. The car is red, but it has no color. ___ D. a. Santa Claus is bald. ___ b. Either it is raining here or it is not raining here and Santa Claus is bald. ___ 
Examine the antonyms contained in the following song by AlanisMorrisette:
Hand In My Pocket By: Alanis & Glen Ballard
I'm broke but I'm happy I'm poor but I'm kind I'm shore but I'm healthy, yeah I'm high butI'm grounded I'm sane but I'm overwhelmed I'm lost but I'm hopeful babyWhat it all comes down to Is that everything's gonna be fine fine fine I've got one hand inmy pocked And the other one is giving a high fiveI feel drunk but I'm sober I'm young and I'm underpaid I'm tired but I'm working, yeah Icare but I'm restless I'm here but I'm really gone I'm wrong and I'msorry babyWhat it all comes down to Is that everything's gonna be quite alright I've got one hand inmy pocket And the other one is flicking a cigarette What it all comes down to Is that Ihaven't got it all figured out just yet I've got one hand in my pocket And the other one isgiving the peace signI'm free but I'm focused I'm green but I'm wise I'm hard but I'm friendly baby I'm sad butI'm laughing I'm brave but I'm chicken shit I'm sick but I'm pretty babyWhat it all boils down to Is that no one's really got it figured out just yet I've got one handin my pocket And the other one is playing the piano What it all

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