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Notes on Neuro.1

Notes on Neuro.1

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Published by Johan Candido
NEUROANATOMY
NEUROANATOMY

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Published by: Johan Candido on Aug 05, 2011
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09/23/2012

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Anatomy of Cranial cavity 
Definition:The inside view of cranium is known ascranial cavity.
Contents of cranial cavity:
 The cranial cavity contains the brain,pineal and hypophysis cerebri, parts of the cranial and spinal nerves, bloodvessels, meninges and cerebrospinalfluid.1.
 
A
nterior cranial fossa whichaccommodates the anterior lobeof brain.2.
 
Middle cranial fossa, much widerthan the anterior cranial fossacontain the 2 temporal lobes of brain.3.
 
Posterior cranial fossa is muchshallower and wider than themiddle cranial fossa and itaccommodates the occipital lobesof the brain.
Anterior cranial fossa:
I
nteriorly it contains sphenoid bone.Sphenoid bone consists of three partsa) -Bodyb) -Lesser wings, 2 in numberc) -Greater wing , also 2 in numberBody of sphenoid is again subdivided intoanterior, middle and posterior parts.
A
nterior part lies in anterior cranialfossa, middle in middle cranial fossa andposterior in posterior cranial fossa. Sosphenoid bone is common in all threefossae.
B
oundaries and foramens of anteriorcranial fossa:
 
A
nteriorly and laterally is bounded byfrontal boneFloor:The floor of anterior crania fossa idformed by orbital plate of frontal bone,ethmiod cribriform plate , anteriorborder of sphenoids lesser wings andanterior part of the body.Posteriorly:Bounded by posterior border of lesserwing of sphenoid, anterior clinoidprocess and sulcus chiasmaticus.Ethmoid:Ethmoid is present in the centre of cranial fossa and it forms part of its floor.
I
t forms 4 sutures, 3 with frontal and 1with sphenoid.Crista galli
I
t is a sharp upward projection of ethmoid bone in the midline, for theattachment of falx cerebri.Foramen cecumBetween the crista galli and the crest of the frontal bone is small aperture, theforamen cecum.
I
n 85 % of the subjects,it is closed. While in 15% subjects, it ispatent or open for the passage of vein of nose which drains into superior sagittalsinus.
I
mportance of foramen cecum is that theinfection can travel easily from the noseto the venous sinus of the brain.Cribriform plate of the ethmoid: This is thee perforated part of theethmoid. The upper surface of thecribriform plate supports the olfactorybulbs, and the small perforations in thecribriform plate are for the olfactorynerves.Clinical importance:
I
f cribriform plate isinjured, then there will be loss of sensation of smell.
 
A
nterior and posterior Ethmoidalcanals:
 There are 2 anterior Ethmoidal canals onthe sides of upper surface of ethmoid forthe passage of anterior Ethmoidal vesselsand nerves. While posterior Ethmoidalcanals give passage to post Ethmoidalvessels only.Clinical importance of orbital plate of frontal bone:Orbital part of frontal born not onlyforms the floor of anterior cranial fossabut also the roof of the orbit.
I
f injuryoccurs to this plate, then bleeding fromeyes could occur.
M
iddle cranial fossa:
Boundaries:
A
nteriorly by the post border of the lesserwings of sphenoid, anterior clinoidprocesses and sulcus chiasmaticus.Posteriorly by the superior borders of petrous part of temporal and sphenoidsdorsum sella.Laterally by the squamous part of temporal and some part if parietal andgreater wings of sphenoid.Floor of lateral part is formed by greaterwing of sphenoid and petrous andsquamous parts of the temporal bone.
I
n the centre, floor is formed by the sellatursica of body of sphenoid.The middle cranial fossa is deeper andmore extensive than the anterior cranialfossa.Sella tursica:Te sella tursica is named for itsresemblance of the Turkish saddle with itsanterior tuberculum sella, central fossaand posterior dorsum sella.Tuberculum sella:
A
rises from the body of the sphenoid,dividing the hypophysial fossa from thesulcus chiasmatis or optic groove.Hypophysial fossa:
A
midline depression contains the pituitarygland (hypophysis cerebri).Dorsum sellae:
I
s a vertical plate between the posteriorclinoid process, forming the posterior wallof the fossa.Posterior clinoid process:Continuation of the dorsolateral corners of the flat dorsum sella.Optic groove:Sulcus chiasmaticus groves the sphenoidbone between optic foramina and thetuberculum sallae.
I
t is so named becauseit contains optic chiasm, rather than opticnerve.Optic canal
I
t is present between the roots of thelesser wings of sphenoid and containsoptic nerve, ophthalmic artery andmeninges.Superior orbital fissure:
I
t is a slit like opening between the lesserand greater wings of the sphenoid. Themiddle cranial fossa communicates withthe orbits by this fissure.
I
t transmits oculomotor, trochlear:lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branchesof the ophthalmic division of thetrigeminal nerve. Plus it contains abducentnerve and ophthalmic nerve.Foramen rotundum:
I
t is just below and behind the medial endof the superior orbital fissure .it transmitsthe maxillary nerve.
 
Foramen ovale:
I
t lies posteriolateral to the foramenrotumdum.
I
t transmits the mandibularnerve, emissary veins, lesser petrosalnerve and accessory meningeal vein.Foramen spinosum:
I
t lies posteriolateral to the foramen ovale.it transmits the middle meningeal artery.Foramen lacerum
I
t lies superiomedially to the foramenspinosum.
I
t transmit
y
 
I
nternal carotid artery with itssympathetic nervous and venousplexus.
y
 
Carotid sinus.
y
 
Emissary veins.
y
 
N
erve to pterygoid canal (containsdeep petrosal nerve and greaterpetrosal nerve).Petrous part of temporal bone:This part accommodates the semicircularcanals of the ear which are responsible forthe balancing and equilibrium. So injury tothis part can disturb the equilibrium.
B
oundaries of Posteriorcranial fossa:
A
nteriorly the fossa is bounded by thesuperior border of the petrous part of temporal bone and dorsum sallae.Posteriorly by the lesser part of theoccipital squama.Floor by squamous conylor and basilarparts of the occipital bone.foramenmagnum forms the central part of thefloor.Foramen magnum:Occupies he central area of the floor andtransmits the medulla oblongata and itssurroundings meninges, the ascendingspinal parts of the accessory nerves andthe 2 vertebral arteriesHypoglossal canal:
I
s situated above the anterolateralboundary of the foramen magnum andtransmits the hypoglossal nerve, andemissary veins.Jugular foramen:Lies between the lower border of thepetrous part of the temporal bone andcondylar part of the occipital bone.
I
ttransmits 9
th
, 10
th
, and 11
th
cranial nervesand the inferior petrosal sinus plus sigmoidsinus.
I
nternal acoustic meatus:Pierces the posterior surface of thepetrous part of temporal bone andtransmits the vestibulocochlear nerve andfacial nerve.Clivus:
I
t is slope formed by the basilar part of theoccipital bone and posterior part of thesphenoid bone.
Pterygopalatine Fossa
B
rief description
.The pterygopalatine fossa has the shape of an inverted cone.
I
t is located lateral to thenasal cavity, anterior inferior to the middlecranial fossa, inferior to the apex of theorbit and medial to the infratemporal fossa.
I
t communicates with the orbit, middlecranial fossa, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oralcavity and infratemporal fossa by means of two fissures, two foramina and threecanals.The pterygopalatine fossa containsMaxillary nerve V2 (second division of theTrigeminal nerve), the pterygopalatine

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