Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Base Oil Product Trends

Base Oil Product Trends



|Views: 1,012|Likes:
Published by rvsingh
lube oil base stock
lube oil base stock

More info:

Published by: rvsingh on Sep 23, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Global Base Oil Product Trends
Brent K. Lok Senior Product Manager - Base OilsMark L. SztenderowiczProduct Development Specialist - Base Oil TechnologyChevron Products Company
William M. Kleiser Senior Staff Engineer, Automotive Engine OilsOronite Global Technology
Page 2
For the fifty to sixty years prior to the beginning of the 1990’s, paraffinic base oil quality was very slow to change.With a few exceptions, most paraffinic stocks, regardless of location, were made through solvent extraction of selected crude oil streams. Over the last decade, however, significant changes have occurred within this industry.In the early 1990s, the changes began when European engine oil volatility specifications drove European suppliersto offer higher VI/lower volatility base oils. Those cost-effective alternatives to the only preexisting solution –using expensive synthetic blend stocks such as polyalphaolefins (PAO) – typically involved solvent dewaxing of afuels hydrocracker (HC) bottoms stream to achieve a high-VI, low volatility product. Although effective as low-volatility base stocks, these generally are limited product offerings intended only to complement existing Group Ibase oil slates. These first-generation Group III base oils were low-capital-cost solutions to the volatility challengethat allowed maximum use of existing Group I base oils to be retained. As a result, European base oil capacity stillis almost entirely solvent refined (Group I) today, and shows few signs of making any major shift in the near future.In contrast, starting in the mid-1990s the North American base oil industry changed direction, and started to buildnew base oil plants or substantially modify existing plants to manufacture hydroprocessed (Group II/II+/III) baseoils, recognizing their benefits in product quality, low operating costs and flexibility. The result is that in less than adecade, Group II capacity, currently at 40% of the paraffinic market, will have grown to be the dominant paraffinicbase oil type in North America.While quality and base oil performance were important drivers of base oil changes in Europe and North America, inAsia supply shortfalls precipitated the building of new base oil plants, often by new players in the industry, andmostly utilizing the newer hydroprocessing technology. The result has been the creation of significant availabilityof higher performance base oils in a market which, ironically, generally does not yet need them.Why did Europe and North America, two interrelated base oil markets with many very similar driving forces at play,diverge in their approach to improving base oil quality and performance? Will this disparity in base oil supplycapability widen or narrow in the future? Will the availability of higher-performing Group II/III base oils in Asiadrive existing Group I producers to upgrade to Group II/III, as it did in North America? What further changes are instore for the base oil industry, in each of these regions, in the future?This paper will attempt to answer these questions by examining the underlying drivers for change in each of thesethree major regions. Because of similarities in their technical requirements, North American and European lubricantand base oil markets will be discussed first. These two markets will then be compared and contrasted in terms of how base oil suppliers have responded to these forces. Next, the Asian base oil market, where drivers are mostlycommercial rather than technical, will be discussed briefly. By examining these many varied driving factors, bothtechnical and commercial, in each of the three markets, the authors hope to shed light on why the base oil industry iswhere it is today, and where it may be going in the future.
North American Base Oil Trends
In the North American market, transportation lubricants is the primary category in which the most significant baseoil changes are occurring. These changes are seen most prominently in motor oils and automatic transmissionfluids, and are being driven in large part by more stringent manufacturer specifications. And while the factorsaffecting each type of product (e.g., passenger car motor oils, heavy duty motor oils) are somewhat different, theyshare the same themes of longer life, cleaner operation and lesser environmental impact.Performance levels of other lubricants, such as industrial oils and hydraulic fluids, also are moving in the directionof higher quality. This is due in part to the availability of higher quality base oils that are emerging in response totransportation lubricant requirements. Although OEM-driven performance enhancements are less common in thisvery broad category of lubricants, equipment users welcome performance improvements that boost profitability byreducing downtime, extending equipment life, and increasing productivity. This, plus a trend toward more severe
Page 3operating conditions in some types of equipment has spurred a movement toward premium-grade industrial oils thatuse advanced base oils as their foundation.The major drivers for change in each of these two product categories will be discussed below, with emphasis on thebase oil changes that they have spurred in North America. This is followed by some speculation on what trends maybe seen in the future.
Transportation Lubricants
Passenger Car Motor OilBy far the most prevalent of the transportation lubricants are motor oils, generally split into passenger car motor oils(PCMO) and heavy duty motor oils (HDMO). In each arena, environmental pressure placed on enginemanufacturers, in one form or another, is the key factor forcing these OEMs to create new engine oil categories thatrequire higher performance. Along with this pressure is increasing customer demand for reducing operating costsand/or maintenance time.In the case of PCMO, the environmental pressure takes two key forms, which also fall in alignment with customer-based drivers. These are:
 Improved Fuel Economy
: Manufacturers who sell vehicles in the U.S. are required to meet specific CorporateAverage Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, or face severe fines. With the proliferation of larger vehicles,particularly Sport/Utility Vehicles (SUVs), fleet average fuel economy has actually declined in recent yearssuch that it is now very difficult for some manufacturers to meet CAFE standards [1]. Though most consumersin North America, particularly those who are propagating the trend to larger vehicles, care little about fueleconomy, OEMs are anxious to gain improvements through any available technical means.Through proper formulation, PCMO can yield a modest benefit in fuel economy relative to today’s typical oils.Moreover, due to the need to demonstrate to regulators that engine oil-derived fuel economy benefits don’tdisappear shortly after the oil goes into the engine, the need has arisen to develop engine oils with fuel economy
. In addition to improved additive technology, these requirements demand better base oils.Specifically, the base oil must have lower volatility than current oils to help resist evaporative-inducedthickening, and it must be more stable to resist oxidation, which also causes viscosity increase, and additivedepletion, which can reduce the effectiveness of friction modifiers. Moreover, all of these changes must takeplace simultaneously with a shift toward lower viscosity grades; SAE 5W-30 is now the recommended oil formost 2000 model year cars, with 5W-20 proposed for the very near future.
Cleanliness of Engine and Emissions Controls
: - With ever more stringent limits on vehicle tailpipe emissions,vehicle manufacturers are requiring increasingly cleaner engines and systems that affect emissions performance.This requires lower oil consumption to protect catalysts and oxygen sensors, as well as to minimize directemissions from combustion of engine oil. Also required are cleaner internal engine components, particularlythe pistons and rings, which have a significant impact on cylinder sealing and thus control of blowby gases andoil consumption. Again, base oil quality plays an important role. Engine oil volatility has been shown to have asignificant impact on oil consumption, and this volatility is determined almost entirely by the base oil. Thus,lower oil consumption demands lower volatility base oils. Lower engine deposits, though most stronglyaffected by additive formulation, also can be reduced by using more stable base stocks, which resist oxidationand therefore the formation of deposit precursors.
On the consumer side
, most drivers are happy to reduce the amount of maintenance that must be performed ontheir cars. With current tune-up and major service intervals now as great as 160,000 km, engine oil is the mostfrequent maintenance item on most modern cars. Also, many people now lease vehicles instead of buying them,and many of these lessees have little interest in opening their hoods between required service points, much lesschecking their oil and topping it off if indicated. In addition the same lubricant must suffice for both summerand winter use. Thus, an engine oil with greater life, lower oil consumption, and stable low and hightemperature viscometrics is desired, again reflecting the need for base oils of lower volatility and betterresistance to oxidation.

Activity (20)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
PCarrot Pae liked this
PCarrot Pae liked this
Sam Cheng liked this
mageddawa liked this
phamdoanket liked this
jainendratrivedi liked this
b@hram liked this
b@hram liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->