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Congressional Research Report Gun Control Legislation June 2011

Congressional Research Report Gun Control Legislation June 2011

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CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Gun Control Legislation
William J. Krouse
Specialist in Domestic Security and Crime Policy June 9, 2011
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govRL32842
 
Gun Control LegislationCongressional Research Service
Summary
Congress has debated the efficacy and constitutionality of federal regulation of firearms andammunition, with strong advocates arguing for and against greater gun control. The tragicshootings in Tucson, AZ, on January 8, 2011, in which six people were killed and 13 wounded,including Representative Gabrielle Giffords, could prompt the 112
th
Congress to examine issuesrelated to the shooter’s mental illness and drug use (see S. 436) and his use of large capacityammunition feeding devices (LCAFDs) (see H.R. 308 and S. 32), as well as a proposal to banfirearms within the proximity of certain high-level federal officials (see H.R. 367 and H.R. 496).Other emerging issues include the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives’s (ATF)proposal to require multiple rifle sales reports from Southwest border state gun dealers and itsconduct of Operation Fast and Furious. More recently, gun-related amendments to billsreauthorizing USA PATRIOT Act provisions were considered (H.R. 1800, S. 1038, and S. 990),but were not included in the enacted legislation (P.L. 112-14). To set these and other emergingissues in context, this report provides basic firearms-related statistics, an overview of federalfirearms law, and a summary of legislative action in the 111
th
Congress.During the 111
th
Congress, the gun control debate was colored by two key Supreme Courtfindings. In
 District of Columbia v. Heller 
, the Court found that the District of Columbia (DC)handgun ban, among other regulations, violated an individual’s right under the SecondAmendment to lawfully possess a firearm in his home for self-defense. In
 McDonald v. City of Chicago
, the Court found that the Second Amendment also applied to the states. Congressconsidered amendments to DC voting rights bills that would have further overturned DC gun laws(S. 160 and H.R. 157), effectively scuttling the House bill. In addition, some Members passedseveral other gun-related provisions included in enacted legislation that address
 
carrying firearms on public lands (P.L. 111-24),
 
transporting firearms in passenger luggage on Amtrak (P.L. 111-117),
 
widening law enforcement off-duty concealed carry privileges (P.L. 111-272),and
 
prohibiting higher health care premiums for gun owners (P.L. 111-148).The 111
th
Congress reconsidered or newly considered several other provisions that were notenacted. These issues could re-emerge in the 112
th
Congress. These provisions address
 
gun rights restoration for veterans previously deemed to be mentally incompetent(S. 669 and H.R. 6132),
 
firearms possession in public housing (H.R. 3045 and H.R. 4868),
 
interstate reciprocity of concealed carry privileges (S. 1390 and S. 845), and
 
the treatment of firearms under bankruptcy proceedings (H.R. 5827/S. 3654).The report concludes with discussion of other salient and recurring gun control issues that havegenerated past congressional interest. Those issues include (1) screening firearms backgroundcheck applicants against terrorist watch lists; (2) reforming the regulation of federally licensedgun dealers; (3) requiring background checks for private firearms transfers at gun shows; (4)more-strictly regulating certain firearms previously defined in statute as “semiautomatic assaultweapons”; and (5) banning or requiring the registration of certain long-range .50 caliber rifles,which are commonly referred to as “sniper” rifles.
 
Gun Control LegislationCongressional Research Service
Contents
Recent Developments..................................................................................................................1
 
Overview of Legislative Action in the 111
th
Congress..................................................................1
 
Background and Analysis............................................................................................................3
 
Pro/Con Debate.....................................................................................................................3
 
Gun-Related Statistics...........................................................................................................4
 
How Many Guns Are in the United States?......................................................................4
 
How Often Are Guns Used in Homicides?.......................................................................5
 
How Prevalent Are Gun-Related Fatalities?.....................................................................6
 
How Often Are Guns Used in Non-lethal Crimes?...........................................................8
 
How Often Are Firearms Used in Self-Defense?..............................................................8
 
What About the Recreational Use of Guns?.....................................................................9
 
Federal Regulation of Firearms...................................................................................................9
 
The National Firearms Act (NFA).......................................................................................10
 
The Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA)..................................................................................10
 
Firearms Transfer and Possession Eligibility.................................................................10
 
Licensed Dealers and Firearms Transfers.......................................................................11
 
Private Firearms Transfers.............................................................................................11
 
Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.............................................................................12
 
Interim Provisions.........................................................................................................12
 
Permanent Provisions....................................................................................................12
 
National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP)..........................................16
 
NICS Act Record Improvement Program (NARIP)........................................................18
 
Background Check Fee and Record Retention...............................................................20
 
Emerging Issues in the 112
th
Congress.......................................................................................21
 
Tucson Shootings................................................................................................................22
 
Mental Illness and Drug Use as Prohibiting Factors.......................................................22
 
Large Capacity Ammunition Feeding Devices...............................................................23
 
Banning Firearms within the Proximity of Federal Officials..........................................24
 
ATF Southwest Border Gun Trafficking Investigations........................................................24
 
Multiple Rifles Sales Report Proposal...........................................................................24
 
Operation Fast and Furious...........................................................................................27
 
ATF FY2011 Appropriation and FY2012 Budget Request...................................................29
 
FISA Sunset Extensions and Firearms-Related Amendments...............................................30
 
Legislative Action in the 111
th
and 110
th
Congresses..................................................................30
 
Constitutionality of DC Handgun Ban and Related Legislation............................................30
 
DC Council Passes Emergency Law..............................................................................31
 
Legislation Related to DC Gun Laws............................................................................31
 
DC Council Passes Permanent Legislation....................................................................32
 
DC Voting Rights and Gun Laws in the 111
th
Congress..................................................33
 
Constitutionality of the Chicago Handgun Ban....................................................................33
 
Public Lands and Firearms Possession and Use...................................................................34
 
Amtrak Passengers and Firearms.........................................................................................35
 
Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act Amendments............................................................35
 
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Firearms.....................................................36
 
NICS Improvement Amendments Act of 2007.....................................................................37
 

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