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Lathe Machine Operation

Lathe Machine Operation

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Published by Karthick N
Lathe Machine Operation
Lathe Machine Operation

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Published by: Karthick N on Aug 07, 2011
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TC 9-524
Chapter 7
LATHES
The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping articles of metal (and sometimes wood or other materials) by causingthe workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action. The basiclathe that was designed to cut cylindrical metal stock has been developed further to produce screw threads. tapered work. drilledholes. knurled surfaces, and crankshafts. The typical lathe provides a variety of rotating speeds and a means to manually andautomatically move the cutting tool into the workpiece. Machinists and maintenance shop personnel must be thoroughly familiar
with the lathe and its operations to accomplish the repair and fabrication of needed parts.
TYPES OF LATHES
lathe (Figure 7-1 ) is ideally suited for this purpose. A trainedLathes can be divided into three types for easy identification:
operator can accomplish more machining jobs with the
engine lathes, turret lathes, and special purpose lathes. Small
engine lathe than with any other machine tool. Turret lathes
lathes can be bench mounted, are lightweight, and can be
and special purpose lathes are usually used in production or
transported in wheeled vehicles easily. The larger lathes are job shops for mass production or specialized parts. whilefloor mounted and may require special transportation if they
basic engine lathes are usually used for any type of lathe
must be moved. Field and maintenance shops generally use awork. Further reference to lathes in this chapter will be aboutlathe that can be adapted to many operations and that is not too
the various engine lathes.
large to be moved from one work site to another. The engine
7-1
 
TC 9-524
ENGINE LATHES
Lightweight
Sizes
The size of an engine lathe is determined by the largest
piece of stock that can be machined. Before machining a
workpiece, the following measurements must be considered:the diameter of the work that will swing over the bed and the
length between lathe centers(Figure 7-1).
Categories
Lightweight bench engine lathes are generally small latheswith a swing of 10 inches or less, mounted to a bench or table
top. These lathes can accomplish most machining jobs, but
may be limited due to the size of the material that can be
turned.
Precision
Precision tool room lathes are also known as standardmanufacturing lathes and are used for all lathe operations,
Slight differences in the various engine lathes make it easy
such as turning, boring, drilling, reaming, producing screw
to group them into three categories: lightweight bench enginethreads, taper turning, knurling, and radius forming, and canlathes, precision tool room lathes, and gap lathes, which arebe adapted for special milling operations with the appropriate
fixture. This type of lathe can handle workplaces up to 25
also known as extension- type lathes. These lathe categories
are shown in Figure 7-2 Different manufacturers may useinches in diameter and up to 200 inches long. However, the
different lathe categories.
general size is about a 15-inch swing with 36 to 48 inches
between centers. Many tool room lathes are used for special
tool and die production due to the high accuracy of the
machine.
7-1
 
TC 9-524
GAP OR EXTENSION-TYPE LATHES
Gap or extension-type lathes are similar to toolroom lathes
except that gap lathes can be adjusted to machine larger
diameter and longer workplaces The operator can increase the
swing by moving the bed a distance from the headstock,
which is usually one or two feet. By sliding the bed awayfrom the headstock, the gap lathe can be used to turn very
long workplaces between centers.
LATHE COMPONENTS
Engine lathes all have the same general functional parts,even though the specific location or shape of a certain part
may differ from one manufacturer The bed is the foundationof the working parts of the lathe to another (Figure 7-3).
Ways provide the means for holding the tailstock and
carriage, which slide along the ways, in alignment with the
permanently attached headstock
The headstock is located on the operator’s left end of the
lathe bed. It contains the main spindle and oil reservoir andthe gearing mechanism for obtaining various spindle speeds
and for transmitting power to the feeding and threading
mechanism. The headstock mechanism is driven by an
electric motor connected either to a belt or pulley system or toa geared system. The main spindle is mounted on bearings in
the headstock and is hardened and specially ground to fit
different lathe holding devices. The spindle has a hole
through its entire length to accommodate long workplaces.The hole in the nose of the spindle usually has a standard
Morse taper which varies with the size of the lathe. Centers,collets, drill chucks, tapered shank drills and reamers may beThe main feature of its construction are the ways which areinserted into the spindle. Chucks, drive plates, and faceplates
formed on its upper surface and run the full length of the bed.
may be screwed onto the spindle or clamped onto the spindle
nose.
7-3

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