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Generalized Laplace coefficients and Newcomb derivatives

Generalized Laplace coefficients and Newcomb derivatives

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Published by unima3610
It is shown how the generalized Laplace coefficients can be employed to deduce explicit formulas for ordinary and Newcomb derivatives of the Laplace coefficients.
It is shown how the generalized Laplace coefficients can be employed to deduce explicit formulas for ordinary and Newcomb derivatives of the Laplace coefficients.

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Published by: unima3610 on Sep 23, 2008
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08/07/2010

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CelestialMechanicsandDynamicalAstronom
Volume98-Number2-June200
MaurizioM.D'Eliseo 
GeneralizedLaplaceCoecientsand   NewcombDerivatives  
Received:25February2006;revised:25December2006;accepted:3February2007 
Abstrac
ItisshownhowthegeneralizedLaplacecoecientscanbeemployedtodeduceexplicitformulasforordinaryandNewcombderivativesof theLaplacecoecients
Keywords 
Generalizedcoecient
¡ 
expansion
¡ 
derivative
¡ 
Newcomderivatives. 
PAC
95.10.C
¡ 
95.75.P
1Introduction 
TheconceptofgeneralizedLaplacecoecientarisesfromtheanalysisofclassofmathematicalfunctionsobtainedfromtheLaplacecoecientsintheiintegralrepresentationafteriterateddierentiations.Theutilityofthisgeneralizationfromthenumericalpointofviewhasbeenformerlydemonstrated [3],[4].Inthisworkitispresentedadirectmethodtodeduceexplicitformu- lasforordinaryandNewcombderivativesofarbitraryordersoftheLaplaccoecientsstartingfromtherepresentationofthederivativesintermsofthe generalizedcoecientsofD'Eliseo[3]Theseexpressionscanbeusedasuniversalformulasinasymbolicpro- gramforthestudyoftheplanetaryperturbations,mainlyintheanalysiofthelongtermbehaviorofthesystem,wherehigh-orderderivativesofthe Laplacecoecientsarepresentintheliteraldevelopmentsofthedisturbing functionpushedtohighpowersintheeccentricitiesandinclinations[4]
OsservatorioS.ElmViaA.Caccavello22-80129-Napoli-ItalE-mail:s.elmo@mail.com 
 
2MaurizioM.D'Elise
2Generalizedcoecientsandtheirexpansions 
LetusdenethegeneralizedLaplacecoecient 
 
n;
asthefunctionof 
  
n;
  
 
co
n
d ¡ 
 
  
 
co
n 
(cos 
 
 
 
d 
(
 
 
co
 
 
(1wheretheleftsuperscript 
isaninteger,therightsuperscript 
 
isanon- negativeinteger,thesubscrip
ishalfanoddpositiveintegerand 
 
iscomplexvariableintheopendis
(0;1)A
 
n;
 
 
n;
canbetreatedasanon-negativeinteger.Whe
 
=werecovertheLaplacecoecient 
 
 
 
n
.Foruniformityofnotation,womittheusualbracketaround 
inthecoecientAgeneralizedcoecientforeveryvalueof 
 
canbeexpandedintoaexpressioninvolvingonlyLaplacecoecients.Forexample,for 
 
=1,a2cos 
n 
(cos 
 
 
 
)=cos
+1
 
+cos( 
 
1
 
 
 
co
n
(2wegetfromEq.(1
 
n
 
 
+
 
 
¡ 
 
 
(3Weobtaindierentexpansionsbyopportunelywritinganddevelopingthe productcos 
n
intheintegrandofEq.(1).WeconsiderheretwoofthesepostponingintheAppendixtheirderivations. Therstisgivenby(Eq.(43),App. 
A
 
n;
   
=
i;
 
 
(4wher
i;
denotestherationalfunctionof 
 
givenby 
i;
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
¡ 
 
(
 
!
 
 
)
(5AccordingtoEq.(4)thegeneralizedcoecient 
 
n;
canbeexpressedaslinearcombinationof 
 
+1Laplacecoecientswiththesamesuperscript 
havingascoecientsanalyticalfunctionsof 
 
intheopendis
(0;1)witpolesoforder 
 
intheorigin.Itisevidentthatthisdevelopmentholdstrue onlywhe
 
 
 
 
 
Thesecondexpansionis(Eq.(48),App. 
A
 
n;
   
=
   
=
 
 
 
 
!
 
 
)!
 
)
¡ 
 
 
(6Wecanputthisexpressionunderanotherusefulformwiththesubstitution 
+
,sothatwecanwritemoresimpl
 
n;
   
=
r;
 
¦ 
(7
 
GeneralizedLaplaceCoecientsandNewcombDerivatives
wher
 
¦ 
means 
 
 
 
.Thedoublesignof 
originatesfromtheter
 
thattakesthevalue0andintegersvaluesofoppositesigns,whil
r;
denotesthepolynomiali
 
givenby 
r;
 
 
 
 
   
=
 
 
 
 
 
+
!
)!
 
 
 
)
(8Intheupperlimitofthesumon 
wehaveinsertedaoorfunctionbecausofthepresenceoftheterm
 
 
 
)!inthedenominatorthatrequiresthe fullmentoftherelation 
+
 
 
toavoidfactorialsofnegativeintegersInthepracticeitcouldalsohappenthatinpresenceoftheter
 
¦ 
double-countingproblemarises.Inordertoovercomethisdrawbackwecan dividetheter
 
¦ 
by
 
,wher
 
istheKroneckerdelta.Weagrethatfortheupcomingformulassimilarremarkswhennotexpresslystateareunderstood.Equation(7)expressesthegeneralizedcoecient 
 
n;
aslinearcombinationof
 
+1Laplacecoecientswiththesamesubscript 
havingascoecientspolynomialsi
 
ofascendingdegreefromzeroupt
 
,andallvaluesof 
 
areallowed. 
3Derivatives 
Abasicrelationisobtainedbydierentiating 
 
n;
withrespectt
 
undetheintegralsign.Ifweapplytheoperator 
 
dad 
toEq.(1),as 
h
 
 
Yh¡ 
 
=
s!¡ 
 
+1
(9wege
h 
n;
=
s 
n;
+
+
 
 
n;
 
(10Th
thderivativeoftheLaplacecoecient 
 
initsintegralrepresentation isobtainedbymeansofiterateddierentiationsundertheintegralsign. SofromEqs.(1)and(9)wege
 
  
 
  
co
n ¡ 
 
d 
  
 
 
  
co
n¡ 
+
 
d 
=
s
 
 
n
+
Wecouldcontinuebyusingrelation(10).Thisrouteleadstoanexpliciformulaforthederivative 
 
intermsofgeneralizedcoecientsdemon- stratedbyD'Eliseo[3]
Foranynon-negativeintege
wehav
 
 
k
 
   
=
h;
 
n;
 
 
(11
wher
h;
 
 
1
 
 
!
 
 
)
¡ 
 
(12
an
 
istherisingfactorial 
+1
XX
 
 
 
1
wit
=
Itisworthnotingthatthecoecient
h;
donotdependo
 

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