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Number Facts by G. Sarcone

# Number Facts by G. Sarcone

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197 pages with fun facts on numbers (and their peculiar properties), both mathematical and cultural, tantalising problems and anecdotes.
197 pages with fun facts on numbers (and their peculiar properties), both mathematical and cultural, tantalising problems and anecdotes.

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12/29/2014

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by Gianni A. Sarconehttp://www.archimedes-lab.org/numbers/Num1_69.html
eople have always been fascinated by NUMBERS... Numbers areactually basic elements of mathematics used for counting,measuring,ranking,comparing quantities, and solving equations. Numbers have unique properties: for some ones of us they are merelyconcise symbols manipulated according to arbitrary rules, for othersnumbers carry occult powers and mystic virtues.Almost all numeration systems star t as simpletally marks, using single strokes to represent each additional unit. The first known use of numbers dates back to around 30,000 BC when tally marks wereprecisely used by stone age people.To show that each number is unique and has its own beauty, we havecollected for you a huge amount of facts pertaining to the magicalworld of numbers, covering a rangeof different topics includingmathematics, history, philosophy, psychology, symbolism,etymology,language, and/or ethnology...
The number facts in this 'Numberopedia' are available asfeaturesfor print and electronic publishing.
If you got a distinctive fact about any number listed here you think  Archimedes' Labcommunity might enjoy, why not post it here?

Conoscete un numero con delle proprietàoriginali?Contattateci

Connaissez-vous un nombre avec des propriétés étonnantes?Contactez-nous
Number list:
lista dei numeri
(it),
liste des nombres
(fr),
lista de números
(es, por),
Listebesonderer Zahlen
(ger),
getallen en getalverzamelingen
(du),
seznam čísel
(cz),

(ch),

(jap),
список чисел
(ru),
מס פרי  ם ש  מו ת
(he).

0
-
6
|
7
-
12
|
13
-
23
|
24
-
69
|
70
-
200
|
201
-
684
|
5H0P
NaN
NaN
(
N
ot
a

N
umber) is, in computing, a value (or symbol) that is usuallyproduced as the result of an operation on invalid input operands,especially infloating-point calculations. NaNs are close to someundefined oinderterminateexpressions in mathematics. In short, NaN isnot really a number but a symbol that represents a numerical quantitywhose magnitude cannot be determined by the operating system.=

-1

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= log (-
n
) = ln (-
n
)= 0 / 0= 0
0
= 1
= ∞
0
= ∞ / ∞ = ∞ / -∞ = -∞ / ∞ = -∞ / -∞= 0 x ∞ = 0 x -∞= (-∞) + ∞ = ∞ + (-∞)= ln |0| / ln |±∞|=
e
±∞
x ln |0|= (
m
/ ±∞) x (
n
/ 0) if
m
±∞ and
n
0=
, is theimaginary unitof any imaginary number. Discovered by theItalian mathematicianGirolamo Cardano. Animaginary number is a number of the form
b
where 'b' is a realnumber, '
' is the square root of -1, for b 0. Imaginary numbers (andcomplex numbers in general) are essential for describing physicalreality and have concrete applications in: electromagnetism, signalprocessing, control theory, quantum mechanics, cryptology, andcartography...is the result of the folowing equations:x
2
+ 1 = 0x
3
- x = 0 (for x 0 or x 1)Square roots of negative numbers other than -1 can be written under theform:

-n =
ne
/2
= cos (/2) +
sin (/2) =

= e
/2
≈ 0.207879576... (cf.
to the
is a Real Number )thereciprocalof
is
-i
:
-1
= 1/
=
i/i
2
=
/-1 = -
Powers of
repeat in a definite pattern (
, -1, -
, 1, ...):
1
=
2
= -1
3
=
2
= (-1)
= -
4
=
3
= (-
)
= -(
2
) = -(-1) = 1
5
=
4
= (1)
=
...

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Multiplicative table with

1-1
-
1
1-1
-
-1
-11-
i
-
-11
-
-
i
1-1The first roots of

are:
1
=
2
= ±(1 +
)/2
3
= (3 +
)/2
4
= ±(
(2 - 2) + (2 + 2))/2
5
=
:a)

-1 = -1b) (1/-1) = (-1/1)c) 1/-1 = -1/1d) (1)
2
= (-1)
2
e) 1 = -1 and then 2 = 0 ??? Is this possible? Can you discover whatled to this poetic licenced conclusion?
0
is a separate and special entity called 'Identityelement'. 0 is actually the identity elementunder addition for the real numbers, since if
a
is any real number,
a
+ 0 = 0 +
a
=
a
.Mathematicians refers to 0 as the
(or better said, the
).is considered to be a purely imaginarynumber: 0 is the only complex number which isboth
real
and purely
imaginary
.identifies the concept of "almost" impossible in probability. Moregenerally, the concept of almost nowhere in measure theory.
0
= log
a
1
a
0
= 1, only when
a
doesn't equal 0.By convention, you cannot divide any number by zero.In theory, zero multiplied by infinity is undetermined (as is zero dividedby zero).

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