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MUT'A متعة TEMPORARY MARRIAGE IN ISLAM

MUT'A متعة TEMPORARY MARRIAGE IN ISLAM

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Published by Yasin T. al-Jibouri
What is temporary marriage in Islam? Is it permissible or an innovation (bid'a)? These few pages answer these questions and more.
What is temporary marriage in Islam? Is it permissible or an innovation (bid'a)? These few pages answer these questions and more.

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Published by: Yasin T. al-Jibouri on Aug 08, 2011
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07/26/2014

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 MUT’A
ا
 
جاوز
TEMPORARYMARRIAGE IN ISLAM
 By
Yasin T. al-Jibouri
[This brief paper is extracted from Vol. Two of the manuscript for my forthcoming book titled Dictionary of Islamic Terms to be published in the U.S. in few months,
 Insh
ā
-All 
ā
h
.]
Mut`a

:
literally it means: enjoyment; temporary marriage; refer to verse 24 of Chapter 4 (an-Nis
ā
’) of the Holy Qur’
ā
n:

 
ھرأ
 
ھـ
 

 

 
ا
 
ً َ َ ََ َِ ِُ ُُ ُُُ ُَْِ ِْ ْْ ْَ ََ
 where the root word for it is
:
اْ ْُْ ْَ َ
, that is, “you enjoyed”.Temporary marriage existed during the time of the Prophet (
ص
), of first caliph Ab
ū
Bakr and part of second caliph, Omer ibn al-Khattabwho, because of a certain incident, banned it although his son, thefamous and highly respected narrator of 
had 
ī 
th
, namely Abdull
ā
hibn Omer, kept practicing despite his father’s prohibition. He is
 
reported as having regarded
mut'a
as being Islamically permissible.
Ahmed,
Musnad 
, No. 2, p. 95; Ali ibn Ab
ū
Bakr al-Haithami,
Mujma' Az- Zaw
ā
id 
, Vol. 7, pp. 332-33; Sa'eed ibn Mansour,
Sunan
, Vol. 1, p. 252 andAb
ū
Ya'li,
Musnad 
, Vol. 10, p. 68
quote Abdull
ā
h ibn Omer (son of caliph Omer ibn al-Khattab) saying, "
 
 
لر
 

 

 

 

 
 
و
)
ص
(

 
 
و
 
از
By All
ā
h! During the time of the Messenger of All
ā
h (
ص
), we were neither adulterers nor fornicators." In two places of his Sah
 ī 
h, al-Tirmithi indicates on p. 143, Vol. 3 and p.175, Vol. 1, that a man from Syria asked Abdull
ā
h ibn Omer aboutthe
mut’a
. Ibn Omer said, “It is
halal 
(lawful, permissible).” Theman said, “But your father banned it.” Ibn Omer said,
أ
 
ن
 
نا
 
أرأ؟أ
 
ل
 

 
و
 
ا
 
كأ
 
،ﷲ
 
لر
 
و
 
و
 
،
 

!
“Do you see that if my father bans something which the Messenger of All
ā
h (
ص
) permitted, should we abandon the Sunna and follow what my father says?!” This statement is also quoted by im
ā
m Ahmed ibn Hanbal inhis
Musnad 
in three places: on p. 95 and 104 of Vol. 2 and p. 436,Vol. 4. Likewise, it is cited on p. 365, Vol. 2 of al-Qurtubi’s
Tafsir 
 and on p. 21, Vol. 5 of al-Bayhaqi’s
Sunan
. Also, refer to p. 185,Vol. 1 of 
Mujma’ al-Zawad 
where it is quoted. Although all thesereferences are reliable classic Sunni references, only Sh
 ī 
’ites now perform this marriageThe reader may think that only the renown renown of had
 ī 
th,Abdull
ā
h son of second caliph Omer ibn al-Khattab, insisted on practicing the mut’a marriage, but a review of other classic Arabic books reveals contrariwise. Read the following as an example:
ل
 
ة
 
أ
 

 
ةد
 

 

 
ىور
:
ن
)
 

(
ان
 
و
 

 

 
س
)
 

(
ل
 
،
 

 
ا
 
ا
:
 

 

 

 
ذ
 
ت
)
يرا
(
ل
 
،
: 
 
لر
 

 

 
،ثا
 
راد
 
ي
 

)
ص
(
ل
 

 
م
 

:

 
ن
 
 
نا
 
ةا
 
و
 
ا
 
ا
 
ز
 
ل
 

 
نآا
 
نا
 
و
 
،ءش
 

 
ءش
 

 
أ
 

 
ر
 
ا
 
أ
 
ا
 
ةأا
 

 

 
وأ
 

 
ءا
 
هھ
 
ح
 
اا
 
و
 

 
و
 

 
ةر
.
 Muslim has narrated from Qatadah from Ab
ū
Nadhra saying that[Abdull
ā
h] ibn Abb
ā
s enjoined the practice of 
mut’a
, whereas[Abdull
ā
h] ibn az-Zubair used to prohibit it. He said: I mentionedthis to J
ā
 bir ibn Abdull
ā
h [al-Ans
ā
ri]. He [J
ā
 bir] said, “I witnessedthe talk. We practiced
mut’a
during the time of the Messenger of 2
 
All
ā
h (
ص
). When Omer came to power, he said, “All
ā
h used to permit His Messenger whatever He willed however He willed. TheQur’
ā
n has reached its full stages, so you should complete the pilgrimage and the
umra
as All
ā
h, the most Exalted, the most Great,commanded you and keep away from cohabiting with these women,for I shall never be brought a man who cohabited with a woman for a set period of time without stoning him.”Refer to p. 206, Vol. 7 of al-Bayhaqi’s
Sunan
where the author saysthat Muslim has quoted it in his
Sah
ī 
h
through other sources fromHumam.Mut’a marriage is never a substitute for the blessed institution of  permanent marriage. As a matter of fact, top Sh
 ī 
’a
 faqihs
andscholars caution the faithful about abusing this institute which provides a bitter pill for a much, much more bitter ailment. On p.720, Vol. 2 of 
Man la Yahdhuru al-Faqih
 
ا
 
ه
 
 

by
‘allama
Shaikh al-Sad
ū
q, the following is stated:

 
أ
 

 

 
أ
 

 
نأ
 

 
ب
 

 
ا
 
ىور
)
ع
(
ل
:

 
ئ
 
ال
 
،ا
:
 
م
 
،ئ
 
ؤ
 

 
ا
 
،ما
 

 

 

 

 
ما
 
ا
 
نا 
 
ؤ
 
ا
.
 “Al-Hassan ibn Mahb
ū
 b narrated from Aban from Abu Maryamwho quotes (Im
ā
m) Abu (father of) Ja’far (al-B
ā
qir) (
ع
). He said thatal-B
ā
qir was asked about the mut’a. He (Im
ā
m al-B
ā
qir) said,“Mut’a now is not what used to be. They (women) used to believethen; nowadays, they do not believe; so, ask about them.”What the Im
ā
m )
ع
( means is that women used to be closer to thefountains of true Islamic knowledge, but nowadays they are not;they are quite distant from them. This is why he recommended thatone should inquire about a woman’s Islamic conduct which reflectsthe depth of her 
im
ā
n
, conviction, before considering marrying her for a pre-determined period of time. Imagine how the status of women has suffered, deteriorated, from the time of Im
ā
m al-B
ā
qir )
ع
( and till now!On the same page of the reference cited above, we read the3

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