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Published by anushka56

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Published by: anushka56 on Aug 09, 2011
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CFD1.1 Introduction
(stands for 
Computational fluid dynamics)
, is one of the branches of fluidmechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems thatinvolve fluid flows.Computers are used to perform the millions of calculations required to simulate theinteraction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. Even with high-speed supercomputers only approximate solutions can be achieved in many cases. Ongoingresearch, however, may yield software that improves the accuracy and speed of complexsimulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software isoften performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in flight test.
A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry.
A simulation of the Hyper-X scramjet vehicle in operation at Mach-7
1.2 Technicalities
he most fundamental consideration in CFD is how one treats a continuous fluid in adiscretized fashion on a computer. One method is to discretize the spatial domain into small cellsto form a volumemesh or grid, and then apply a suitable algorithm to solve the equations of motion (Euler equations for inviscid, and Navier±Stokes equations for viscous flow). In addition,such a mesh can be either irregular (for instance consisting of triangles in 2D, or pyramidalsolids in 3D) or regular; the distinguishing characteristic of the former is that each cell must bestored separately in memory.It is possible to directly solve the Navier±Stokes equations for laminar flows andfor turbulent flows when all of the relevant length scales can be resolved by the grid (a Directnumerical simulation). In general however, the range of length scales appropriate to the problemis larger than even today's massively parallel computers can model. In these cases, turbulent flowsimulations require the introduction of a turbulence model. Large eddy simulations (LES) andthe Reynolds-averaged Navier±Stokes equations (RANS) formulation, with the k- model or theReynolds stress model, are two techniques for dealing with these scales.In many instances, other equations are solved simultaneously with the Navier±Stokesequations.
hese other equations can include those describing species concentration (masstransfer), chemical reactions, heat transfer, etc. More advanced codes allow the simulation of 
more complex cases involving multi-phase flows (e.g. liquid/gas, solid/gas, liquid/solid), non- Newtonian fluids (such as blood), or chemically reacting flows (such as combustion).
1.3 Methodology
In all of the approaches the same basic procedure is followed :
During preprocessing
he geometry (physical bounds) of the problem is defined.
he volume occupied by the fluid is divided into discrete cells (the mesh).
hemesh may be uniform or non-uniform.
he physical modeling is defined ± for example, the equations of motions+ enthalpy + radiation + species conservation
oundary conditions are defined.
his involves specifying the fluid behaviour and properties at the boundaries of the problem. For transient problems, the initialconditions are also defined.
he simulation is started and the equations are solved iteratively as a steady-state ortransient.
Finally a postprocessor is used for the analysis and visualization of the resulting solution.
1.4 Discretization methods
he stability of the chosen discretization is generally established numerically rather thananalytically as with simple linear problems.Some of the discretization methods being used are:
Finite Volume Method (FVM).
his is the "classical" or standard approach used most oftenin commercial software and research codes.
he governing equations are solved on discretecontrol volumes. FVM recasts the PDE's (Partial Differential Equations) of the N-S equationin the conservative form and then discretize this equation.
his guarantees the conservationof fluxes through a particular control volume.
hough the overall solution will beconservative in nature there is no guarantee that it is the actual solution. Moreover this

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