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## Table Of Contents

1.1Introduction
1.2.1SI units
1.2.2Dimensions
1.3Velocity and acceleration
1.4Forces
1.5Friction
1.6Newton's laws of motion
1.7Mass and weight
1.8Scalar and vector quantities
1.9Dealing with vectors
1.10.1Work
1.10.2Energy
1.10.3Power
1.11.1The astronaut's problem
1.11.2Rebounding balls
1.12.1Density
1.12.2Relative density or specific gravity
1.12.3Viscosity
1.12.4Kinematic viscosity
1.12.5Surface tension
1.12.6Compressibility
2.1Introduction
2.2Pressure
2.3Force and pressure are different
2.4Pressure and depth
2.5Pressure is same in all directions
2.6.1The bucket problem
2.6.2The balloon problem
2.7Pressure head
2.8Atmospheric pressure
2.9.1Gauge and absolute pressures
2.9.2Bourdon gauges
2.9.3Piezometers
2.9.4Manometers
2.10Designing dams
2.11Forces on sluice gates
2.12.1Floating objects
2.12.2Applying the principle
2.12.3Drowning in quicksand: myth or reality?
2.13Some examples to test your understanding
3.1Introduction
3.2Experimentation and theory
3.3Hydraulic toolbox
3.4Discharge and continuity
3.5.1Pressure energy
3.5.2Kinetic energy
3.5.3Potential energy
3.5.4Total energy
3.6.1Pressure and elevation changes
3.6.2Measuring velocity
3.6.3Orifices
3.6.4Pressure and velocity changes in a pipe
3.7.1Flow through narrow openings
3.7.2How aeroplanes fly
3.7.3Carburettors
3.7.4Fluid injectors
3.7.5Strong winds
3.7.6Measuring discharge
3.8Momentum
3.9.1Taking account of energy losses
3.9.2Cavitation
3.9.3Boundary layers
3.10Drag forces
3.11Eddy shedding
3.12Making balls swing
3.13Successful stone-skipping
3.14Some examples to test your understanding
4.1Introduction
4.2A typical pipe flow problem
4.3.1Laminar and turbulent flow
4.3.2A formula for turbulent flow
4.4.1Smooth and rough pipes
4.4.2A physical explanation
4.5Hydraulic gradient
4.6Energy loss at pipe fittings
4.7Siphons
4.8.1Using hydraulic design charts
4.8.2Sizing pipes for future demand
4.9Pipe networks
4.10Measuring discharge in pipes
4.11Momentum in pipes
4.12.1Specifying pipes
4.12.2Materials
4.13Pipe fittings
4.14Water hammer
4.15Surge
4.16Some examples to test your understanding
5.1Introduction
5.2Pipes or channels?
5.3Laminar and turbulent flow
5.4.1Continuity
5.4.2Energy
5.4.3Using energy and continuity
5.4.4Taking account of energy losses
5.5.1Channel shapes
5.5.2.1Area and wetted perimeter
5.5.2.2Hydraulic radius
5.5.2.3Slope
5.5.2.4Roughness
5.5.3.1Chezy formula
5.5.3.2Manning formula
5.5.4Using Manning's formula
5.5.5Practical design
5.6Non-uniform flow: gradually varied
5.7.1.1Sub-critical flow
5.7.1.2Super-critical flow
5.7.1.3General rules
5.7.1.4Spotting the difference
5.7.1.5An airflow analogy
5.7.1.6Back to water
5.7.1.7The finger test
5.7.2Froude Number
5.7.3Specific energy
5.7.4Critical depth
5.7.5Critical flow
5.7.6.1Sub- to super-critical flow
5.7.6.2Super- to sub-critical flow (hydraulic jump)
5.7.6.3Creating a hydraulic jump
5.7.6.4Calculating energy losses
5.8.1Channel bends
5.8.2Siting river offtakes
5.8.3Bridge piers
5.8.4Vortices at sluice gates
5.8.5Tea cups
5.9Sediment transport
5.10Some examples to test your understanding
6.1Introduction
6.2Describing waves
6.3Waves at sea
6.4.1Surges
6.4.2Bores in tidal rivers
6.5Flood waves
6.6.1Density currents
6.6.2Waves in harbours
6.6.3Tsunami wave
6.7Tidal power
7.1Introduction
7.2Orifice structures
7.3Weirs and flumes
7.4.1Rectangular weirs
7.4.2Vee-notch weirs
7.4.3Some practical points
7.5.1Determining the height of a weir
7.5.2Broad-crested weirs
7.5.3Crump weirs
7.5.4Round-crested weirs
7.5.5Drowned flow
7.6.1Parshall flumes
7.8Discharge control
7.9Water level control
7.10.1Stilling basins
7.10.2Drop structures
7.11.1Black-water siphons
7.11.2Air-regulated siphons
7.12Culverts
7.13Some examples to test your understanding
8.1Introduction
8.2Positive displacement pumps
8.3.1Centrifugal pumps
8.3.2Axial flow pumps
8.3.3Mixed flow pumps
8.4.1Suction lift
8.4.2Delivery
8.4.3Pumping head
8.4.4Cavitation
8.5Energy for pumping
8.6Power for pumping
8.7.1Discharge and head
8.7.2Discharge and power
8.7.3Discharge and efficiency
8.8Choosing the right kind of pump
8.9Matching a centrifugal pump with a pipeline
8.10Connecting centrifugal pumps in series and in parallel
8.11Variable speed pumps
8.12.1Centrifugal pumps
8.12.2Axial flow pumps
8.13.1Internal combustion engines
8.13.2Electric motors
8.14Surge in pumping mains
8.15Turbines
8.16Some examples to test your understanding
9Bathtub hydraulics
10water 10whisky
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Practical Hydraulics

# Practical Hydraulics

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Published by lukas_07

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Published by: lukas_07 on Aug 09, 2011
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