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Dye Identification

Dye Identification

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Published by Imran Anwar
a complete guide towards dye identification on fibers.
a complete guide towards dye identification on fibers.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Imran Anwar on Aug 09, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/08/2013

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1:30
IDENTIFICATIONOFDYECLASSES
scribed
in
AATCC'lestMethod20-1971
(1),
Positiveidentificationofapanicu1ardyepresentonafiberis,
in
most
cases,extremelydifficult,ifnotimpossiblewithourpresentchoiceofmethods
Or
equipment.and
all
practicalsystemsofidentiflcationare
based
on.dye
classesratherthan.onspecificmembersoftheclass,
Acomprehensiveamisophisticatedmethodologyfortheidentifica-
tionof
individual
dyescan
be
found
inVenkataraman'stext(2).
Oneofnheearliestofsuchsystems
was
(hatofGreen
(3),
which
a1tlwugh
now
out
of
date,
is
stillauseful
reference.
Gayton{4)pub-
Iishedanup-datedversionin1946andasecondocI!itionIn1963.Avery
good
discussionof
methods
for
ideiltificanionofdyes
011
theflberis
givenin\bl.um.e
4
ofGamet'Smanual
(5)..Derrett-Smith
and.Gray(6)haverecentlypublishedan.excellentdiscussionoftheidentificationofva~dyesoncellulosicmaterials.Thischapteroffersasystemofidentifi-cation
based
onwork
by
theNewYorkSectionofthe
AI~rCC(7)
and
waspublishedasapreliminary
ieport(8)
andasachapter
in
theSecondEditionof
AnalyticalMethodsforaTextileLaboratory,
publishedunder
the
aegis
ofAAJrCCcommittee
RAn.
Theschemesofanalysispresented
here
includetestsfor
the
identifi-
cationofshefiberandarebasedonboth
<II
systematicexclusionof
dyes
which
mightbepresent,andafocusingofattentionona
timit.ed
number
of
remaining
possibilities.
Whenever
possible,
theslilgges~edproceduresemploylaboratorytestsandtechniquesavailableinpracticcSIly
all
textile
laboratories.
Moreela-boratemethodsofanalysiswhichmay
possibly
beuseful
in
dye
identifl-cationarediscussedinotherchaptersofthisbook.There
is
nodoubtthatthesemethods
will
find
increasinguseinthefuture.The
identifICation
of
dyes
in
blendsoffibersisnotyetclearlyestab-lished,bu~themore
(!lIperiencedi
analyst
will
beabletoadaptthesepro-
cedurestosuchproblems.
DyesOnCellulosicFibers
Cellutose
fibersare.rapidly~byevenburning,soft,ash,
110
beadandanodorcharacteristicofburningpaper.
Afterthe
fiber
has
been
identifiedas
cellulosic.
thenasystematicseparationofthedye
is
necessarytodetermine
which
ofthe
followingpossible
classes
hasbeenused:direct,acid,basic,dlrect-aftertreatedwithresins,sulfur,vat,oxidation
blacks
(anili.neandcliphenyl)direct-aftertreatedwithmetals.direct-aftertreated
with
formaldehyde.naph-tholsandinsolubleazo,diaeotizedanddeveloped.pigments,and
fiber
reactive.Identificationofdyeclassesoneithercotton
0.[
rayonfollowsthesameprocedure.Solution-dyedviscoseisusuallyidentified
by
micro-scopicexaminationofafibercrosssection.
 
HURWITZ,SALVINANDMcCONNELL
131
Qrou:p
:1
GroupIinctudes
direct,add,
basleanddirectdyesaftertreated
with.
resins.
Thesedyesarenot
set
apartasagroup
by
anysingle
test,
butare
classified
b
theirbleedingindiluteammoniaoraceticacidprovidedtheextractionsarecarriedoutintheprescribedorder.
.DIREcrDYFS.A100-300mg
portion
ofthe
dyedsampleisplaced
ina
35
ml
test
tube,
:5
to10
mlof
waterand0.5to1
ml
ofconcentratedammoniaareaddedandthemixtureboiled
in
ordertobleedoffasuffl-
cient
amountofdye
for
redyein.g
II
pieceof
white
cOUOIt
cloth,Whenasufficientamountofdyebasbledfrom(hesample,the
sampleis
removed,
apieceofwhite
cotton
clothweighingIIJ-30mgis
placed
in
thetesttubeand5to
30mgof
commonsalt
added.Afterboil-
inggentlyfor40-80sec
and
coolling
to
roomtemperaeure,the
cotton
is
removed,rinsedand
examined.Redyeingoncotton
in
anammoniacalsolution
in
thepresenceofsalt
toa.
shadeamistrengthcomparable
tothe
shade
andstrength
ofthe
originalsampleisdefiniteevidenceofadirect.dye.
ACIDDrns.Acid
dyesare
used
very
little
on
cellulosic
fibersexcept
foridentificationorforthedyeingofadddyeablemyon..
If
thesampleinthetest
fordirect
dyes
bledbutleft
nhe
testcottonwhiteoronlyslightlystained,thecoloredextract
is
neutraJiz:ed
with
acetic
acid,1
mlof
100/0
aceticacidisaddedl.and~0-.30
mg
ofwhitewoolis
placed
inthe
liquor;
Afterboilingforapproximatelyhalfa
minute,the
woo]
isrinsedandexamined.Redyeing
0111
woolfromanacidbathindicatesthe
presence
ofaciddyes,provid'ed!thepresenceofadireetorbasic;dye
15
110t
shown.
BASICDYES.
Basic
dyes
havebeenused
very
little
Oil
cellulosicfibersinrecentyearssincetheadventoffiberreactivecolors.Theymay
be
used!occasionally
to
brightensulfurshadesoronlow-costbrightshadeswith
minimumfastness
requlremerus.FortheseInstances,thefollowing
testsare
suggested.
If
thedyedsampledoesnotbleed,orbleedsonlyslightly,inthetest
fOF
directdye,itshould
be
testedforthepresenceofabasicdye.
A1000JOO
mg
sampleis
placed
inaJ·S
ml
testtube,0.25to0.5mlof
glacialaceticacid
is
added.After
warming
overaBunsenburner,3
W
5mlofwaterareaddedandthemixtureisbroughttoa
boil,
Thesample
is
removed,5to20
mg
ofcationicdyeableacryITc
fiberortannln-mor-
dantedcottonis
addedandboilingcontinuedfor
,60-80
sec.RedyeiJ1lgonacrylicfiberorontannin~mordanted
conon
is
evidence
ofthe
presenceofbasicdyes.
ConfirmatoryTest..
If
theabovebathstillcoruainscolorafterthere-dyeinghasbeenmade.
it
am
be
usedforthe
confirmatory
test;other-
Co~r'ghIOOma~ria
 
132
IDENTIFICATIONOFDYBCLASSES
wisea
fresh
gladalacetic
acid.
extractionmustbemade.10thisextract
isadded!:5to7mlof
10Ofo
caustic
soda
solution.
Themixture
is
cooled
and3
to
5
mlofether
added.
Themouthof
the
testtube
is
closed
M.cI
tl1e
tubeisshakenwell.
to
assureextractionofthebasicdyebaseintotile
etherlayer:Themixture
is
allowed.
1.0
separateinto
layers,
andwateris
addedtobringthe.topofthe
ether
layerto
the
mouthofthetest
tube.
Part
oftheether
layer
is
decantedintoa]0mltestrube,twotofivedropsoftoo/aaceticacidareaddedandthetubeisshakenwell,Thebase
ofanybasicdye
will
leavetheetherand
appeal
intheoriginalcolorin
theaceticadd.
layer.
DrazcrDYESAFIERiREATEOWITH
RESIN.
If
the
dyed
sample
failed
to
bleed
or
bledbllt
slightlywhentestedfor
direct
dy~and
the
testfoethe
presence
ofbasicdyeswas
negative.
investigatethe
possibility
ofresin-aftertreateddirectdyes.A
tOO
no
300mgsampleisplaced!
ill
a3,:5
ml
test
tube,
10-1.:5mlofa
Wille
solutionofhydrochloricacidisaddedandboiledfor60sec'.The
acidisdiscarded,a
fresh
portion
added,andtheprocedure
is
repeated,followed
by
arinse.Thistreatmentremovesthe
resin.Ifthesamplenowbleedsfreely
in
ammonia:waterandresponds
fully
tothe
test
fOf
directdyes,thentheoriginal
dyeing
wasadirectdye
after-
treated
with
resins.
GroupD
Grollp
Uincludesdyeswhichchangeshade
On
reduction
with
alka-
linesodiumhydroswfiteand
which
reverttctheoriginalshadecnreoxi-dation
by
air:sulfurdyes,vatdyes,anilineand
diphenyl
blacks.
Allsamplesshould
be
testedforGroup,IbeforetestingforGroup1[,
PreliminaryTest.
A50
to
100
:mgsample
Isplacedinatesttube,3to
6
ml
ofwater
and1
to
2
ml
of
10000o
sodiumhydroxideareadded.and
themixture
raised
tothe
boil.Then
10-30
mgofsodiumhydrosWfiteare
added!and.
boiling
cOIltinued
for2to5
soc.
Mdyesin
this
groupchangeshademdicalJiy,
with
theexceptionof
theIndanthreneblueswhichbleed
profusely
whenthesodium
hydrostil-
fite
is
added
andbleed
onlysli,ghLly
Of
notat
aU
during
thecaustic
soda
treatmenr,
The
colorof
the
Ieucocompound!oftheselndanthfoenedyesIs
blue,
differingonlyslightly
in
shadefrom
the
fillly
oxidized
dye.'Thesample
is
removedandplacedon
flher
paper.Alldyesbelonging
tothisgroup
will
rooxidizein
air
toUte
original
shadewithin5
to
6rnin.
Confirmatory"Test
For
Indont'lrreneBlues.
AlA·inch
squareof
the
cloth
sample
isplacedonseverallayersoffIIlter
paper,
weaedwith
one
or
twodropsof
concentrated
nitric
acid.
andthecolorobserved.
If
the
sample
turns
yeUoworgreen,
me
sample
is
blotted
with
filt.er
paper.
If
Ole'blotisyeUowin
color,
thisblotistouched
with
afewdropsofare-

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