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GSM paper presentation on frequency planning

GSM paper presentation on frequency planning

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Published by: phalanetra on Aug 10, 2011
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 — GSM was the world’s first cellular system tospecify digital modulation and network level architectures andservices, and is the world’s most popular 2G technology. BeforeGSM, European countries used different cellular standardsthroughout Europe. GSM success has exceeded the expectationsof virtually everyone, and it is now the world’s most popularstandard for new cellular radio and personal communicationsequipment throughout the world. As of 2008, there were over400 million GSM subscribers worldwide. The setting of standards for GSM is under the aegis of the European technicalstandard institute (ETSI).
GSM was the world’s first cellular system to specifydigital modulation and network level architectures andservices, and is the world’s most popular 2G technology. Asof 2008, there were over 400 million GSM subscribersworldwide. The GSM network structure essentially consist of Mobile Station(MS),Base Station Subsystem (BSS) and Network Subsystem(NSS) as shown in Fig.
Fig. 1. GSM system architecture.
The BSS includes two types of elements; the basetransceiver station (BTS), which handles radio interfacestoward the MS, and the base station controller (BSC), whichmanages the radio resources and controls handovers. A BSCcan manage several BTSs. Through the MSC, the GSMsystem communication with external networks such as PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network),ISDN (IntegratedServices Digital Network), CSPDN (Circuit Switched PublicData Network) and PSPDN (Packet Switched Packet Data Network). In addition GSM specifies three data bases HLR (Home Location register), VLR (Visitor Location Locator)and AUC (Authentication Center) which maintains thesubscriber roaming information, present location and
identification keys respectively.II.
The idea of cell-based mobile radio systems appeared atBell Laboratories in the United States in the early 1970s.However, mobile cellular systems were not introduced for commercial use until a decade later. During the early 1980’s,analog cellular telephone systems experienced very rapidgrowth in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia and the UnitedKingdom. Today, cellular systems still represent one of thefastest growing telecommunications systems. Duringdevelopment, numerous problems arose as each countrydeveloped its own system, producing equipment limited tooperate only within the boundaries of respective countries,thus limiting the markets in which services could be sold.First-generation cellular networks, the primary focus of thecommunications industry in the early 1980’s, werecharacterized by a few compatible systems that weredesigned to provide purely local cellular solutions. It becameincreasingly apparent that there would be an escalatingdemand for a technology that could facilitate flexible andreliable mobile communications. By the early 1990’s, thelack of capacity of these existing networks emerged as a corechallenge to keeping up with market demand. The firstmobile wireless phones utilized analog transmissiontechnologies, the dominant analog standard being known as“AMPS”, (Advanced Mobile Phone System). Analogstandards operated on bands of spectrum with a lowefrequency and greater wavelength than subsequent standards, providing a significant signal range per cell along with a high propensity for interference. Nonetheless, it is worth notingthe continuing persistence of analog (AMPS) technologies in North America and Latin America through the 1990’s.Initial deployments of second-generation wirelessnetworks occurred in Europe in the 1980’s. These networkswere based on digital, rather than analog technologies, andwere circuit-switched. Circuit-switched cellular data is stillthe most widely used mobile wireless data service. Digitaltechnology offered an appealing combination of performanceand spectral efficiency (in terms of management of scarcefrequency bands), as well as the development of features likespeech security and data communications over high qualitytransmissions. It is also compatible with Integrated ServicesDigital Network (ISDN) technology, which was beingdeveloped for land-based telecommunication systemsthroughout the world, and which would be necessary for GSM to be successful. Moreover in the digital world, itwould be possible to employ very large-scale integrated
Frequency re-use technique in GSM
silicon technology to make handsets more affordable.To a certain extent, the late 1980’s and early 1990’s werecharacterized by the perception that a complete migration todigital cellular would take many years, and that digitalsystems would suffer from a number of technical difficulties(i.e., handset technology). However, second-generationequipment has since proven to offer many advantages over analog systems, including efficient use of radio-magneticspectrum, enhanced security, extended battery life, and datatransmission capabilities. There are four main standards for 2G networks: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA),Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and CodeDivision Multiple Access (CDMA); there is also PersonalDigital Cellular (PDC), which is used exclusively in Japan.In the meantime, a variety of 2.5G standards have beendeveloped. ‘Going digital’ has led to the emergence of several major 2G mobile wireless systems.With the increase of subscribers and development of digital communication technologies, defects of the secondgeneration mobile telephone system are gradually revealed.First of all, the band is too narrow and broadbandinformation services such as high-speed data service, slow-speed video and TV services cannot be provided. Secondly,although GSM is expected to provide global system for mobile communications, global roaming in real sense is notrealized. In addition, large-scale application of GSM systemis not realized in countries that have a large number of mobile subscribers, such as America and Japan. With thedevelopment of technologies and communication services, anintegrated service system that can provide the existingmobile telephone system functions, as well as diversifiedservices is needed. Therefore, the ITU calls for thecommercialization of the third mobile communication systemin 2000, that is, IMT-2000 system.III.
The GSM standard provides a common set of compatibleservices and capabilities to all mobile users across Europeand several million customers worldwide. The basicrequirements of GSM have been described in five aspects.
The system shall provide service portability,i.e., mobile stations (MSs) or mobile phones can b e used inall participating countries. The system shall offer servicesthat exist in the wireline network as well as services specificto mobile communications. In addition to vehiclemountedstations, the system shall provide service to MSs used by pedestrians and/or onboard ships.
Thequality for voice telephony of GSM shall be at least as goodas the previous analog systems over the practical operatingrange. The system shall be capable offering informationencryption without significantly affecting the costs to userswho do not require such facility.
The systemshall permit a high level of spectrum efficiency and state-of-the-art subscriber facilities. The system shall b e capable of operating in the entire llocated frequency band, and co-existwith the earlier systems in the same frequency band.
The identification and numbering plansshall b e based on relevant ITU recommendations. Aninternational standardized signaling system shall be used for switching and mobility management. The existing fixed public networks should not be significantly modified.
The system parameters shall b e chosen with aview to limiting the cost of the complete system, in particular the MSs.
The GSM system consist of mainly three parts that are
1)Mobile Station (MS).2)Base Station Subsystem (BSS).3)Network Subsystem (NSS).
The mobile station (MS) is made up of two entities.
Mobile Equipment 
is the handset that are produced by manydifferent manufacturers. The ME must be approved by astandardized body and every mobile in the world will have aunique identity number called IMEI i.e.
 International Mobile Equipment Identity
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
is a smart card thatcontains
 International Mobile Subscriber Identity
(IMSI).They allow user to make and receive calls. They haveencoded information of the network. They are portable i.e.can be moved from phone to phone.
The BSS connects the MS and the NSS. The BSS consistsof two parts: the base transceiver station (BTS) and the base station controller (BSC). The BTS contains transmitter,receiver, and signaling equipment specific to the radiointerface in order to contact the MSs. An important part of the BTS is the transcoder/rate adapter unit (TRAU) thatcarries out GSM-specific speech encoding/decoding and rateadaptation in data transmission. The BSC is responsible for the switching functions in the BSS, and is in turn connectedto an MSC in the NSS. The BSC supports radio channelallocation/release and handoff management. A BSC mayconnect to several BTSs and maintain cell configuration dataof these BTSs. The BSC communicates with the BTSs usingISDN protocols via the A-bis interface. In GSM BSS design,a BSC may only connect to one BTS, in which case they are2
likely to be collocated. In this scenario, the BSC and the BTSmay be integrated without the A-bis interface.Capacity planning for BSC is very important. In busyhours, the processor load of a BSC is roughly distributed incall activities (around 20-25%), paging and short messageservice (around 10-15%), mobility management (handoff andlocation update around 20-25%), and hardwarechecking/network-triggered events (around 15-20%). A BSCis typically engineered at 80% utilization. When a BSC isoverloaded, it first rejects location update, then MSoriginating calls, and then handoffs.
The NSS supports the switching functions, subscribe profiles, and mobility management. The basic switchingfunction in the NSS is performed by the MSC. This interfacefollows a signaling protocol used in the telephone network.The MSC also communicates with other network elementsexternal to GSM utilizing the same signaling protocol. Thecurrent location of an MS is usually maintained by the HLR and VLR. When an MS moves from the home system to avisited system, its location is registered at the VLR of thevisited system. The VLR then informs the MS's HLR of itscurrent location. The authentication center (AuC) is used inthe security data management for the authentication of subscribers. The AuC may be collocated with the HLR.IV.GSM
In a GSM system, channels are divided into logical and physical channels. Time slots are basic physical channels;thus each carrier frequency contains 8 physical channels.Physical channels of radio sub-systems support logicalchannels which can be subdivided functionally into TrafficChannels (TCH) and Control Channels (CCH).
Traffic channels
are the channels where voice of data ismade to move from one point to other point. In here thetraffic can move in two different modes that is full rate(TCH/F) and half rate (TCH/H). where in full rate the datarates will be 22.4 Kbps and in half rate is half of that in fullrate.
Control channels
are broadly classified into three typesthey are 1)
 Broadcast Channels
Common Control Channels
 Dedicated Control Channels
(DCCH). These controlchannels are mainly involved in monitoring the mobile and providing the subscriber a dedicated channel i.e. TCHwhenever required.V.
In a newly developed area where we don’t have anynetwork coverage the first thing what a service provider doesis that he surveys the terrain. Then the planning part comesinto picture where the required resource to provide servicefor the subscriber is planned.While planning there are two stages of planning. They are
1)coverage based planning.2)capacity based planning.
In coverage based planning first concern of the service provider is to cover the entire terrain by the basestaion.In this planning the main concern is to provide coverage for subscriber. In this planning the GoS i.e. grade of service will be too low that there will be high call blocking possible.After the experience of rapid use of service, capacity based planning is opted where the number of basestations will beincreased in a particular area where user density is more.This provides every subscriber to have a TCH and GoS will be improved.VI.
In GSM communication the concept of frequency reuse isextensively used throughout a coverage region. Each cellular  basestation is allocated a group of frequencies or radiochannel to be used within a small geographic area called cell.Basestations in adjacent cells are assigned channel groupswhich completely different channels than neighboring cells.The basestation antennas are designed to achieve the desiredcoverage within a particular cell. By limiting the coveragearea to within the boundaries of a cell, the group of channelsmay be used to cover different cells that are separated fromone another by distance large enough to keep interferencelevels within tolerable limits. The design process of selectingand allocating channels group for all of the cellular  basestations within a system is called
 frequency reuse
 frequency planning.
Fig. 2. 7cell structure
Basic concept of Frequency Planning
A)Frequency Reuse Cluster.B)Frequency Reuse Factor.C)Frequency Reuse Distance.D)C/I and C/A.FREQUENCY REUSE CLUSTER In here all the available frequencies are transmitted in acell and this cell is reused to provide coverage for a area. Aswe know the frequencies are auctioned by the telecom3

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