silicon technology to make handsets more affordable.To a certain extent, the late 1980’s and early 1990’s werecharacterized by the perception that a complete migration todigital cellular would take many years, and that digitalsystems would suffer from a number of technical difficulties(i.e., handset technology). However, second-generationequipment has since proven to offer many advantages over analog systems, including efficient use of radio-magneticspectrum, enhanced security, extended battery life, and datatransmission capabilities. There are four main standards for 2G networks: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA),Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and CodeDivision Multiple Access (CDMA); there is also PersonalDigital Cellular (PDC), which is used exclusively in Japan.In the meantime, a variety of 2.5G standards have beendeveloped. ‘Going digital’ has led to the emergence of several major 2G mobile wireless systems.With the increase of subscribers and development of digital communication technologies, defects of the secondgeneration mobile telephone system are gradually revealed.First of all, the band is too narrow and broadbandinformation services such as high-speed data service, slow-speed video and TV services cannot be provided. Secondly,although GSM is expected to provide global system for mobile communications, global roaming in real sense is notrealized. In addition, large-scale application of GSM systemis not realized in countries that have a large number of mobile subscribers, such as America and Japan. With thedevelopment of technologies and communication services, anintegrated service system that can provide the existingmobile telephone system functions, as well as diversifiedservices is needed. Therefore, the ITU calls for thecommercialization of the third mobile communication systemin 2000, that is, IMT-2000 system.III.
The GSM standard provides a common set of compatibleservices and capabilities to all mobile users across Europeand several million customers worldwide. The basicrequirements of GSM have been described in five aspects.
The system shall provide service portability,i.e., mobile stations (MSs) or mobile phones can b e used inall participating countries. The system shall offer servicesthat exist in the wireline network as well as services specificto mobile communications. In addition to vehiclemountedstations, the system shall provide service to MSs used by pedestrians and/or onboard ships.
QUALITY OF SERVICE AND SECURITY:
Thequality for voice telephony of GSM shall be at least as goodas the previous analog systems over the practical operatingrange. The system shall be capable offering informationencryption without significantly affecting the costs to userswho do not require such facility.
RADIO FREQUENCY UTILIZATION:
The systemshall permit a high level of spectrum efficiency and state-of-the-art subscriber facilities. The system shall b e capable of operating in the entire llocated frequency band, and co-existwith the earlier systems in the same frequency band.
The identification and numbering plansshall b e based on relevant ITU recommendations. Aninternational standardized signaling system shall be used for switching and mobility management. The existing fixed public networks should not be significantly modified.
The system parameters shall b e chosen with aview to limiting the cost of the complete system, in particular the MSs.
GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
The GSM system consist of mainly three parts that are
1)Mobile Station (MS).2)Base Station Subsystem (BSS).3)Network Subsystem (NSS).
The mobile station (MS) is made up of two entities.
is the handset that are produced by manydifferent manufacturers. The ME must be approved by astandardized body and every mobile in the world will have aunique identity number called IMEI i.e.
International Mobile Equipment Identity
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
is a smart card thatcontains
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
(IMSI).They allow user to make and receive calls. They haveencoded information of the network. They are portable i.e.can be moved from phone to phone.
BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM
The BSS connects the MS and the NSS. The BSS consistsof two parts: the base transceiver station (BTS) and the base station controller (BSC). The BTS contains transmitter,receiver, and signaling equipment specific to the radiointerface in order to contact the MSs. An important part of the BTS is the transcoder/rate adapter unit (TRAU) thatcarries out GSM-specific speech encoding/decoding and rateadaptation in data transmission. The BSC is responsible for the switching functions in the BSS, and is in turn connectedto an MSC in the NSS. The BSC supports radio channelallocation/release and handoff management. A BSC mayconnect to several BTSs and maintain cell configuration dataof these BTSs. The BSC communicates with the BTSs usingISDN protocols via the A-bis interface. In GSM BSS design,a BSC may only connect to one BTS, in which case they are2