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High Speed Vertical Take-Off Landing [VTOL] Unmanned Aerial Vehicle [UAV] with Smart Technologies

High Speed Vertical Take-Off Landing [VTOL] Unmanned Aerial Vehicle [UAV] with Smart Technologies

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Published by Luptonga
The tilt rotor has recently risen as a strong alternative for the future high speed VTOL air vehicle concept in civil and the other applications. The best advantage of the tilt rotor concept is known to have higher flight speed and endurance performance superior to conventional helicopter. In the early stage of tilt rotor development, several unexpected mishaps happened. However, in spite of many adversities, the tilt rotor concept has been actively researched and developed. Recently, the commercial tilt rotor aircraft has been on the airworthiness process, and waiting for a launch of passenger transport.

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The tilt rotor has recently risen as a strong alternative for the future high speed VTOL air vehicle concept in civil and the other applications. The best advantage of the tilt rotor concept is known to have higher flight speed and endurance performance superior to conventional helicopter. In the early stage of tilt rotor development, several unexpected mishaps happened. However, in spite of many adversities, the tilt rotor concept has been actively researched and developed. Recently, the commercial tilt rotor aircraft has been on the airworthiness process, and waiting for a launch of passenger transport.

Moi blog: AA Me, IN

http://www.aame.in/


YouTube Channel: Luptonga

http://youtube.com/luptonga

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Published by: Luptonga on Aug 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/19/2013

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HIGH SPEED VTOL UAV WITH SMART TECHNOLOGIES
CheolHo LimVice PresidentKorea Aerospace Research Institute45 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333, KoreaPh : 82-42-860-2020 Fax : 82-42-860-2929 Email : chlim@kari.re.krSoojung HwangSenior ResearcherKorea Aerospace Research Institute45 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333, KoreaPh : 82-42-860-2706 Fax : 82-42-860-2929 Email : soojung@kari.re.kr
ABSTRACT
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) has developed for a robust and intelligent tilt rotor UAVexhibiting high-speed cruise and vertical takeoff and landing capabilities since 2002. Various smarttechnologies have been applied to the UAV, fully autonomous flight including take off and landing,real time health monitoring, see and avoid collision avoidance, automatic mission reconfiguration.Small-scaled flight demonstrators successfully achieved the mission of fully autonomous tilt rotorflight in 2008. Major features of Smart UAV are illustrated with the developmental history in thispaper.
INTRODUCTION
The tilt rotor has recently risen as a strong alternative for the future high speed VTOL air vehicleconcept in civil and the other applications. The best advantage of the tilt rotor concept is known tohave higher flight speed and endurance performance superior to conventional helicopter. In the earlystage of tilt rotor development, several unexpected mishaps happened. However, in spite of manyadversities, the tilt rotor concept has been actively researched and developed. Recently, thecommercial tilt rotor aircraft has been on the airworthness process, and waiting for a launch of passenger transport.One of the most prominent trends in the recent aeronautical field is an emergence of unmanned aerialvehicle. Many people look out that the unmanned aerial vehicles replace many manned aircraft innear future, especially in the search or fight missions. These days, various configurations of unmanned aerial vehicle have been designed and utilized in many applications. Tilt rotor UAV is oneof those noticeable applications (Ref.1 and Ref.2). Tilt rotor UAV has both advantages of fixed wingand rotary aircrafts. It can take off and land vertically, and cruise with high speed and fuelefficiencies of the level of fixed wing aircraft.
DEVELOPMENTAL HISTORY
Smart UAV
Figure 1 shows Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) which Korea Aerospace Research Institute(KARI) has developed for a robust and intelligent tilt rotor UAV exhibiting high-speed cruise andvertical takeoff and landing capabilities since 2002. The maximum takeoff weight of SUAV is1,000kg. The maximum and maneuver speeds are 475 km/h and 400 km/hr, respectively. Highlyreliable design and operating concepts were implemented in the critical subsystems such as power
 
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train, flight control, and avionics systems. SUAV can fly in three flight modes ; helicopter,conversion, and airplane modes. After vertical takeoff in helicopter mode, the rotor is tilted bypreprogrammed conversion flight envelope. Various smart technologies have been applied to SUAV,fully autonomous flight including take off and landing, real time health monitoring, see and avoidcollision avoidance, automatic mission reconfiguration. The composition of SUAV system can beseen from Figure 1. The smart technologies are mainly incorporated in the platform and payloadsystems. Figure 2 shows civil application examples of SUAV. Many other applications beyond theseare possible such as surveillance, monitoring, exploration, telecommunication, etc.
Figure 1. Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Figure 2. Civil Applications of SUAV
Design and Integration
In the initial stage of SUAV development, tilt rotor was selected as a baseline platform configurationfrom intensive trade study. From the study, tilt rotor showed more efficient performance for SUAVrequirements than the other candidate configurations of stopped rotor, compound gyrocopter.Especially, tilt rotor showed much higher endurance in the mission of surveillance because it couldbe operated by airplane mode during the most of mission profile except take off and landing.
Figure 3. CFD Analysis for SUAV Figure 2. WT test for SUAV powered test model
Various methodologies of design, analysis, and evaluation methods were applied to SUAV design.Figure 3 shows CFD analysis results for the full configuration of SUAV. Three configurations of isolated rotor, unpowered, and powered configurations were analyzed by computational method withdynamic overlapping grid scheme. Wind tunnel tests were performed for evaluating the aerodynamicdata of SUAV. Three types of unpowered static, powered static and dynamic wind tunnel test modelswere designed and fabricated. Most of wind tunnel tests, except forced vibration test, were performedin KARI subsonic wind tunnel of 3m by 4m test section. From the extensive tests, it can be obtainedvaluable data such as proprotor efficiency, control surface effectiveness, and dynamic stability data,and so on.Airframe structure of SUAV was designed for minimizing weight and fabrication process under thegiven design requirements of vibration, dynamic stability, load, strength and environments.Composite materials were applied in most of structures to save the weight, and the number of 
 
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component parts was minimized to save the cost. Figure 5 shows the first bending vibration modefrom the finite element analysis. Various static and dynamic structural tests were performed in theevaluation process. Figure 6 shows a static structural test fixture on SUAV test model.
Figure 5. Structural Vibration Analysis Figure 6. Static Structural Test
The power plant system of SUAV can be made of engine, drive-line, nacelle conversion, and rotorsystems. A turbo shaft engine of P&W X206 is located at center fuselage and drives both rotorsthrough center and pylon gearboxes. The drive-line includes gear boxes, drive shafts, cooling andlubrication systems. The super-finished gears were developed and used in the gear boxes to enhancethe performance and durability. A dry sump type of lubrication concept with oil jets was applied to allthree gearboxes. Nacelle conversion actuators located at the wingtips drive the nacelles includingrotor system between the tilt angles of helicopter and airplane modes. SUAV has three bladed,gimbaled, stiff-in plane rotor system. The SUAV gimbaled hub was designed based on automotivestyle mechanical constant velocity joint that uses large ball bearings driving deeply grooved hubelements, and tension-torsion strap transferring CF force of blade to hub. All the actuators in rotorpitch control and nacelle conversion are electric motor driven with redundancy. Figure 7 showsdesigned proprotor hub and assembled rotor system. Figure 8 shows a stress analysis result of bevelgear installed in the center gear box of SUAV.
Figure 7. SUAV Rotor System Figure 8. Stress Analysis of SUAV Bevel Gear
The flight control system (FTS) of SUAV was developed for fully autonomous flight with healthmonitoring and collision avoidance functions. Hardware of the FTS was composed of digital flightcontrol computer, local precision position system, DGPS/INS, collision avoidance system, electricactuator system, air data system, and radio altimeter. The operational flight program (OFP) of SUAVwas designed with fault detection and intelligent mission control algorithms. Both hardware andsoftware of SUAV FTS has dual redundancy. Figure 9 shows autonomous flight control logic of SUAV OFP. The communication system of SUAV was designed to have the minimum 95% reliabilityin 200km distance with double channels on up and down links respectively. The ground control

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